Scientific corner

Combination of granulocyte-monocyte apheresis and tofacitinib: Multicentre and retrospective study

Iago Rodríguez-Lago 1, Fiorella Cañete 2, Elena Guerra-Del-Río 3, Claudia Herrera-deGuise 4, Eva Iglesias 5, Eduardo Leo 6, Yamile Zabana 7, Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta 8, Daniel Ginard 9, José Luis Cabriada 10
Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2024 Jan 23:S0210-5705(24)00022-0. doi: 10.1016/j.gastrohep.2024.01.004. Online ahead of print.
[Article in English, Spanish]

Objective: Granulocyte-monocyte apheresis (GMA) has shown to be safe and effective in treating ulcerative colitis (UC), also in combination with biologics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining GMA after primary non-response (PNR) or loss of response (LOR) to tofacitinib (TOFA) in patients with UC.

Patients and methods: Retrospective study including all patients with refractory UC who received GMA plus TOFA. Efficacy was assessed 1 and 6 months after finishing GMA by partial Mayo score, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal calprotectin (FC). Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used in the statistical analysis.

Results: Twelve patients were included (median 46 years [IQR, 37-58]; 67% female; 67% E3). Patients were mostly receiving TOFA 10mg bid (75%), and 33% also concomitant steroids at baseline. Median partial Mayo score at baseline was 7 (IQR, 5-7), and it decreased to a median of 2 (IQR, 0-3) and 0 (IQR, 0-3) after 1 and 6 months (p=0.027 and 0.020, respectively), while no differences were found in CRP and FC. Clinical remission was achieved by 6 patients both at 1 (50%) and 6 months (67%). CF values<250mg/kg were achieved by 2 and 4 patients at 1 and 6 months (data available in 5 and 7 patients, respectively). No patient required dose-escalation of TOFA, and one patient was able to de-escalate the drug. No patient required colectomy and all patients under steroids were able to stop them. Conclusion: The combination of GMA and TOFA can be effective in selected cases of UC after PNR or LOR to this drug

Scientific corner

Granulocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis (in Spanish)

Gerardo Prieto Bozano an. pedatr. contin.2012;10(5):286-9

  • Existen 2 dispositivos de granulocitoféresis: Cellsorba® (fibras de poliéster no tejidas), que fija granulocitos y linfocitos, y Adacolumn® (acetato de celulosa) que fija selectivamente granulocitos y monocitos.
  • Además de retirar leucocitos activados, la aféresis produce incremento del número de granulocitos CD10-negativos (inmaduros), disminución de citocinas proinflamatorias (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa [TNF-α], interleucina [IL-6],IL-8 e IL-1β) e incremento de citocinas inhibitorias (IL-1, IL-10)
  • La granulocitoféresis es un método razonablemente eficaz y seguro para obtener la remisión en niños con colitis ulcerosa corticodependiente o resistente, sobre todo en pacientes en el primer episodio, en enfermedad de corta evolución y en aquellos que no han recibido esteroides
  • El procedimiento requiere 2 accesos venosos de buen flujo. La pauta más habitual de tratamiento consiste en 1–2 sesiones semanales de 60min a un flujo de 30ml/min, hasta un total de 5–10 sesiones

Scientific corner

Long-interval Cytapheresis as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy Leading to Dosage Reduction and Discontinuation of Steroids in Steroid-dependent Ulcerative Colitis

Masahiro Iizuka 1 2Takeshi Etou 2Makoto Kumagai 3Atsushi Matsuoka 3Yuka Numata 3Shiho Sagara 1 , Intern Med. 2017 Oct 15;56(20):2705-2710.

Conclusion We confirmed that LI-CAP has therapeutic effects on reducing the dosage and discontinuing steroids in patients with steroid-dependent UC.

Scientific corner

Steroid-sparing strategies in the management of ulcerative colitis: Efficacy of leukocytapheresis.

Manabu ShirakiTakayuki Yamamoto , World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov 7;18(41):5833-8.

Active ulcerative colitis (UC) is frequently associated with infiltration of a large number of leukocytes into the bowel mucosa. Leukocytapheresis is a novel nonpharmacologic approach for active UC, in which leukocytes are mechanically removed from the circulatory system. Current data indicate that leukocytapheresis is efficacious in improving response and remission rates with excellent tolerability and safety in patients with UC. Corticosteroid therapy remains a mainstay in the treatment of active UC; however, long-term, high doses of corticosteroids usually produce predictable and potentially serious side effects. If leukocytapheresis can spare patients from exposure to corticosteroids, the risk of steroid-induced adverse events should be minimized. This may be of great benefit to patients because severe side effects of steroids seriously impair health-related quality of life. In this article, we reviewed current evidence on whether leukocytapheresis can avoid or reduce the use of corticosteroids in the management of patients with UC. Several studies have shown that leukocytapheresis was effective for steroid-naïve patients with active UC. Furthermore, both short-term and long-term studies have demonstrated the steroid-sparing effects of leukocytapheresis therapy in patients with UC. Although the evidence level is not striking, the available data suggest that leukocytapheresis can avoid or reduce the use of corticosteroids in the management of UC. Large, well-designed clinical trials are necessary to more accurately evaluate the steroid-sparing effects of leukocytapheresis in the management of UC.

Scientific corner

Treating ulcerative colitis by Adacolumn therapeutic leucocytapheresis: clinical efficacy and safety based on surveillance of 656 patients in 53 centres in Japan

T Hibi 1Y SameshimaY SekiguchiY HisatomeF MaruyamaK MoriwakiC ShimaA R SaniabadiT Matsumoto

Dig Liver Dis. 2009 Aug;41(8):570-7. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2008.11.020. Epub 2009 Feb 10.

Background/aim: The Adacolumn selectively depletes granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, which are thought to be part of the immunopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. This work aims at evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of the Adacolumn in patients with ulcerative colitis in large population-based data sets. Methods: The Adacolumn post marketing surveillance in Japan was undertaken on 697 patients in 53 medical institutions over 7 years from 29 October 1999 to 28 October 2006. Clinical efficacy and safety data were provided by patients’ physicians in the participating institutes. Results: Safety was evaluated in all the 697 patients and efficacy in 656 patients. At entry, 92% of the patients were on salicylates, 74% on prednisolone and only 9% on immunomodulators. Approximately 40% of patients had severe ulcerative colitis and over 70% had ulcerative colitis that was refractory to conventional medications. There was no serious adverse events; mild to moderate adverse events were seen in 7.7% of the patients. The overall response (remission or significantly improved) was 77.3%; the remission rate based on clinical activity index was 71.1%, while 17.1% remained unchanged and 5.6% worsened. Patients were subgrouped into severe, moderate and mild ulcerative colitis based on clinical activity index (n=578), the response rates were 63.2%, 65.7% and 80.4%, respectively (P<0.001). Endoscopic assessment of efficacy showed very significant mucosal healing, Matts’ endoscopic index improved from 3.2+/-0.04 to 2.1+/-0.7 (n=219, P<0.001); reduction in prednisolone dose (P<0.0001); leucocyte count (n=358, P<0.0001) and C-reactive protein (n=314, P<0.0001). Patients who received > or =6 Adacolumn sessions (n=319) did better than patients who received < or =5 sessions (n=188, P=0.004) and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that baseline granulocyte count was the strongest predictor of clinical response to Adacolumn (P=0.0191, odds ratio 1.151). Conclusion: This post marketing surveillance provides the largest ever efficacy and safety data on the Adacolumn therapeutic leucocytapheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis. As a non-pharmacologic treatment for patients with active ulcerative colitis most of whom were refractory to conventional drug therapy, the observed efficacy was very significant. Baseline granulocyte count was convincingly an independent predictor of clinical response.

Scientific corner

The logics of leukocytapheresis as a natural biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

Takanori Kanai 1Toshifumi HibiMamoru Watanabe, Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2006 May;6(5):453-66.

 Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are debilitating idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) with symptoms that impair ability to function and quality of life. The aetiology of IBD is inadequately understood and, therefore, drug therapy has been empirical instead of based on sound understanding of the disease mechanisms. This has been a major factor for poor drug efficacy and treatment-related side effects that often add to disease complications. The development of biologicals, notably infliximab, to block TNF-alpha reflects some progress, but there is major concern about their side effects and lack of long-term safety and efficacy profiles. However, IBD by its very nature is exacerbated and perpetuated by inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-12, for which activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes are major sources. Hence, activated leukocytes should be appropriate targets of therapy. At present, three strategies are available for removing excess and activated leukocytes by leukocytapheresis: centrifugation, Adacolumn and Cellsorba. Centrifugation can deplete lymphocytes or total leukocytes, whereas Adacolumn selectively adsorbs granulocytes and monocytes together with a smaller fraction of lymphocytes (FcgammaR- and complement receptor-bearing leukocytes), and Cellsorba non-selectively removes all three major leukocyte populations. Efficacy has ranged from ‘none’ to an impressive 93% together with excellent safety profiles and downmodulation of inflammation factors. Furthermore, leukocytapheresis has shown strong drug-sparing effects and reduced the number of patients requiring colectomy or exposure to unsafe immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporin A. Leukocytapheresis removes from the body cells that contribute to IBD and, therefore, unlike drugs, it is not expected to induce dependency or refractoriness.

Scientific corner

Therapeutic leukocytapheresis for inflammatory bowel disease

Abbi R.Saniabadi, HiroyukiHanai, KenFukunaga, KojiSawada, ChikakoShima, IngvarBjarnason, RobertLofberg,

The inference that granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages (GM) are part of the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and hence should be targets of therapy stems from observations of elevated, and activated GM in patients with IBD. The Adacolumn can selectively deplete GM by adsorption (GMA) and in patients with IBD. GMA has been associated with significant clinical efficacy together with sustained suppression of inflammatory cytokine profiles. Additionally, GMA depleted proinflammatory CD14+CD16+ monocytes and was followed by an increase in CD4+ T lymphocytes including the regulatory CD4+CD25high+Foxp3 phenotype. Hence, GMA could be a non-pharmacologic therapy for IBD with potential to spare steroids and other unsafe pharmacologic preparations.

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