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P106 Single-cell transcriptomic analysis reveals insights into the mechanism of action of Granulocyte-monocyte apheresis

D Kioroglou, J L Cabriada, U Martinez Marigorta, I Rodriguez-Lago. Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, Volume 18, Issue Supplement_1, January 2024, Page i389,

Granulocyte-monocyte apheresis (GMA) is a non-pharmacological treatment approved for the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), particularly steroid-dependent cases. The exact mechanism of action and immunological changes associated with GMA remain undescribed. Gene expression analysis at the single-cell level (through scRNA-Seq) has emerged as a key tool of choice to characterize drug response at the molecular level. We used scRNA-Seq to characterize the transcriptomic effects and immune cell population alterations in GMA.

We generated scRNA-Seq from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of two ulcerative colitis (UC) patients undergoing GMA treatment. We compared the gene expression profile before and after 5 sessions of GMA treatment. The analytical pipeline included quality control and classical filtering steps, cell-type annotation, differential gene expression analysis and pathway enrichment profiling.

We report three main results. First, we observed significant reductions of cell types directly affected by GMA treatment in UC patients. This includes classical CD14+ monocytes and Natural killers, which are central components of the innate system. Of note, we observed a remarkable increase in Double-negative T cells (dnT) after 5 sessions of GMA treatment, suggesting potential expansion of protective populations involved in decreased inflammation. Second, we observe a variety of genes and regulatory pathways altered by GMA treatment. In total, we detect 86 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which overall are biased towards downregulation (63%). Of note, we detected dnT-s exhibiting upregulation of NEFL that is associated with the MAPK cascade and downregulation of genes related to immune response and signaling pathways. Finally, the effects of GMA treatment extend beyond the above mentioned populations, with particular alterations in CD4+ T cell populations such as CD4+ central memory and CD4+ Naive (7 and 13 DEGs, respectively).

For the first time, we generated single-cell transcriptomic profiles to characterize the effects of GMA treatment in peripheral blood of UC patients. Our preliminary analysis detects important alterations in the gene regulation and cell type composition in samples obtained after 5 sessions of GMA. Through expansion of this dataset to include more time points and profiles for more individuals, we will discuss the longitudinal changes and molecular mechanisms involved in response to GMA treatment.

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Chapter 53 – The use of therapeutic apheresis in allergic and immunological diseases

Allergic and Immunologic Diseases

A Practical Guide to the Evaluation, Diagnosis and Management of Allergic and Immunologic Diseases 2022, Pages 1527-1583

Apheresis is a term for a group of extracorporeal treatments in which blood is separated into its components, with some components being discarded and replaced or subsequently modified. The replacement fluids/cells or modified components, along with the remainder of the blood, are then returned to the patient. These procedures can alter the immune system, both humoral and cellular, and have been used to treat a variety of common and uncommon immunologic diseases beginning in the late 1950s. The basic background information important for understanding those apheresis procedures used to treat immunologic disorders as well as the important patient considerations are discussed. A synopsis of immunologic diseases treated with apheresis, based upon the American Society for Apheresis Guidelines for the use of apheresis in clinical practice, is provided including treatment schedules and “dosing,” patient evaluation and laboratory monitoring, and the proposed mechanism of action. Unique considerations for each treatment, such as their effects on patient management and concurrent therapies, are also discussed. Apheresis is a group of related therapies that can effectively treat several immunologic diseases with a growing but still a limited base of published evidence.

The use of therapeutic apheresis in allergic and immunological diseases – ScienceDirect

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Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comprehensive Review

Zhaobei Cai 1 2Shu Wang 3Jiannan Li 1 Front Med (Lausanne)  2021 Dec 20;8:765474. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.765474. eCollection 2021.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as a global disease, has attracted much research interest. Constant research has led to a better understanding of the disease condition and further promoted its management. We here reviewed the conventional and the novel drugs and therapies, as well as the potential ones, which have shown promise in preclinical studies and are likely to be effective future therapies. The conventional treatments aim at controlling symptoms through pharmacotherapy, including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, with other general measures and/or surgical resection if necessary. However, a considerable fraction of patients do not respond to available treatments or lose response, which calls for new therapeutic strategies. Diverse therapeutic options are emerging, involving small molecules, apheresis therapy, improved intestinal microecology, cell therapy, and exosome therapy. In addition, patient education partly upgrades the efficacy of IBD treatment. Recent advances in the management of IBD have led to a paradigm shift in the treatment goals, from targeting symptom-free daily life to shooting for mucosal healing. In this review, the latest progress in IBD treatment is summarized to understand the advantages, pitfalls, and research prospects of different drugs and therapies and to provide a basis for the clinical decision and further research of IBD.

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Apheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Evidence

Daniel Vasile Balaban and Mariana Jinga Crohn’s Disease Recent Advances book, October 15th, 2020 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93605

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have become a major focus for gastroenterologists worldwide, with the increasing incidence and complexity of cases, which pose therapeutic challenges. Currently available approaches fail in controlling the disease activity in a significant proportion of patients and some of the therapies are associated with significant adverse events. Although new molecules are on the horizon and treatment strategies have been optimized, novel therapeutic tools are much needed in IBD for patients who fail to attain control of the disease. Apheresis is now a common non-pharmacological therapeutic modality used in several pathologies, IBD also. In the current review, we summarize currently available evidence with respect to selective apheresis in IBD.

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Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis: A potentially relevant therapeutic option for COVID-19

Takuro Kanekura 1Koichi Kawahara 2 , Int J Infect Dis 2020 Oct;99:1-2. 

To our knowledge, GMA has a good safety profile; serious adverse effects are rarely reported. Its modes of action together with the findings of this case report support our notion that GMA is a relevant therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19 and warrants an immediate clinical trial to evaluate its full therapeutic efficacy in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients.

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Recommendations for Therapeutic Apheresis by the Section “Preparative and Therapeutic Hemapheresis” of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology

Nina Worel 1Behrouz Mansouri Taleghani 2Erwin Strasser 3 Transfus Med Hemother 2019 Dec;46(6):394-406. doi: 10.1159/000503937. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

The section “Preparative and Therapeutic Hemapheresis” of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI) has reviewed the actual literature and updated techniques and indications for evidence-based use of therapeutic apheresis in human disease. The recommendations are mostly in line with the “Guidelines on the Use of Therapeutic Apheresis in Clinical Practice” published by the Writing Committee of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) and have been conducted by experts from the DACH (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) region.

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Advancements in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Narrative Review of Diagnostics, Management, Epidemiology, Prevalence, Patient Outcomes, Quality of Life, and Clinical Presentation

Muhammad Ali Muzammil 1Fnu Fariha 2Tirath Patel 3Rohab Sohail 4Munesh Kumar 5Ejaz Khan 6Bushra Khanam 7Satesh Kumar 8Mahima Khatri 9Giustino Varrassi 10Prasanthi Vanga 112023 Jun 28;15(6):e41120. doi: 10.7759/cureus.41120.

The functionality and aging mechanism of antibodies physisorbed onto cellulosic films
was investigated. Blood grouping antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) were adsorbed onto smooth cellulose acetate (CAF) and regenerated
cellulose (RCF) films. Cellulose films and adsorbed IgG layers were characterized at the
air and liquid interface by X-ray and neutron reflectivity (NR), respectively. Cellulose film
208 Å thick (in air) swell to 386 Å once equilibrated in water. IgG adsorbs from solution
onto cellulose as a partial layer 62 Å thick. IgG and IgM antibodies were adsorbed onto
cellulose and cellulose acetate films, air dried, and aged at room temperature for periods
up to 20 days. Antibody functionality and surface hydrophobicity were measured everyday with the size of red blood cell (RBC) agglutinates (using RBC specific to IgG/IgM)
and the water droplet contact angle, respectively. The functionality of the aged IgG/IgM
decreases faster if physisorbed on cellulose than on cellulose acetate and correlates to
surface hydrophobicity. IgG physisorbed on RCF or CAF age better and remain functional longer than physisorbed IgM. We found a correlation between antibody stability
and hydrogen bond formation ability of the system, evaluated from antibody carbonyl
concentration and cellulosic surface hydroxyl concentration. Antibody physisorbs on cellulose by weak dipole forces and hydrogen bonds. Strong hydrogen bonding contributes
to the physisorption of antibody on cellulose into a non-functional configuration in which
the molecule relaxes by rotation of hydophobic groups toward the air interface.

Functionality of Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M Antibody Physisorbed on Cellulosic Films – PubMed (

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Granulocitoaféresis en 2017. Puesta al día (Spanish)

Cabriada, J.L.Rodríguez-Lago, I.

Enfermedad Inflamatoria Intestinal 20017 (16) 2, 62-69 DOI: 10.1016/j.eii.2016.12.001 

Granulocyte apheresis is a procedure that allows the removal of different activated leukocyte populations and it also modifies some circulating inflammatory mediators. These effects, along with its immunomodulatory potential, make it an attractive therapeutic option in inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies with this technique have had significant limitations, but recent data is emerging about the ideal clinical setting in which granulocyte apheresis should be indicated. Most of the evidence supports its use in conditions that are dependent or refractory to corticosteroids, especially when treatments with immunomodulators or biologics has failed and when it is necessary to reduce or avoid the use of systemic corticosteroids. Its excellent safety profile gives it a role in cases of comorbidity or risk in the use of immunosuppressive drugs or in paediatric patients. In this review, we provide an update on the role of granulocyte apheresis in inflammatory bowel disease.

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Therapeutic Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis (GMA) for Treatment Refractory Sarcoidosis: A Pilot Study of Clinical Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

H H Olsen 1V MuratovK CederlundJ LundahlA EklundJ Grunewald, Clin Exp Immunol. 2014 Sep;177(3):712-9.

Sarcoidosis is a systemic, inflammatory disorder, which in a proportion of patients runs a chronic progressive course despite immunosuppressive treatment. Therapeutic granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has been shown to be an effective treatment option for other systemic inflammatory disorders, but has not yet been investigated in sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to GMA in sarcoidosis. Seven patients with sarcoidosis refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy received 10 GMA sessions. All patients underwent chest X-ray, spirometry, a Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ-SAS), blood tests and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) before treatment and at 2-4 weeks and 3 months (except bronchoscopy) after the last treatment session. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell differential counts were recorded and T cells from blood and BALF were analysed for markers of activity, differentiation and T regulatory function. Compared to baseline, five of seven patients reported an improvement in dyspnoea score. In BALF there was an increase in the percentage of macrophages and a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells. Furthermore, the decrease in BALF CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells correlated significantly with an improvement in dyspnoea score. In peripheral blood there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /CD27(-) T cells and a trend towards an initial increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells, followed by a statistically significant decrease. The effects of GMA on regulatory T cells are consistent with those observed in other inflammatory disorders and could potentially translate into a clinical benefit.

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Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis as an effective treatment for Reiter disease

J L Cabriada 1E DomènechN IbargoyenV HernándezJ ClofentD GinardI Gutiérrez-IbarluzeaJ Hinojosa, J clin. Exp.dermatology 2012 (37),3, 241-244

Reiter disease (RD) is characterized by a triad of sterile arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. The conditions occur concomitantly or sequentially, and are associated with mucocutaneous features such as circinate balanitis and stomatitis. Arthritis usually occurs in attacks followed by recovery, but it sometimes progresses to permanent damage of the affected joints. Because the symptoms of this disorder are attributable to activated neutrophils, we assessed the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) in a 73-year-old man with RD who had skin rashes on his penis, scrotum and right hand, with severe arthralgia. The patient’s skin rash and joint pain responded dramatically to five sessions of GCAP delivered at intervals of 5 days. We present a detailed description of the patient and discuss the mechanisms of GCAP, and suggest that GCAP may be useful for treating RD.

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