An Update on Current Pharmacotherapeutic Options for the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis
The main goals of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) treatment are to both induce and maintain the clinical and endoscopic remission of disease, reduce the incidence of complications such as dysplasia and colorectal carcinoma and improve quality of life. Although a curative medical treatment for UC has not yet been found, new therapeutic strategies addressing specific pathogenetic mechanisms of disease are emerging. Notwithstanding these novel therapies, non-biological conventional drugs remain a mainstay of treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize current therapeutic strategies used as treatment for ulcerative colitis and to briefly focus on emerging therapeutic strategies, including novel biologic therapies and small molecules. To date, multiple therapeutic approaches can be adopted in UC and the range of available compounds is constantly increasing. In this era, the realization of well-designed comparative clinical trials, as well as the definition of specific therapeutic models, would be strongly suggested in order to achieve personalized management for UC patients.
Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis therapy for patients with active ulcerative colitis associated with COVID-19: a case report
Miki Koroku 1, Teppei Omori 1, Harutaka Kambayashi 1, Shun Murasugi 1, Tomoko Kuriyama 1, Yuichi Ikarashi 1, Maria Yonezawa 1, Ken Arimura 2, Kazunori Karasawa 3, Norio Hanafusa 4, Masatoshi Kawana 5, Katsutoshi Tokushige
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is now a pandemic. Although several treatment guidelines have been proposed for patients who have both inflammatory bowel disease and COVID-19, immunosuppressive therapy is essentially not recommended, and the treatment options are limited. Even in the COVID-19 pandemic, adjuvant adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis may safely bring ulcerative colitis (UC) into remission by removing activated myeloid cells without the use of immunosuppressive therapy. Our patient was a 25-year-old Japanese male with UC and COVID-19. This is the first case report of the induction of UC remission with granulocyte and monocyte apheresis treatment for active UC associated with COVID-19.
Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comprehensive Review
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as a global disease, has attracted much research interest. Constant research has led to a better understanding of the disease condition and further promoted its management. We here reviewed the conventional and the novel drugs and therapies, as well as the potential ones, which have shown promise in preclinical studies and are likely to be effective future therapies. The conventional treatments aim at controlling symptoms through pharmacotherapy, including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, with other general measures and/or surgical resection if necessary. However, a considerable fraction of patients do not respond to available treatments or lose response, which calls for new therapeutic strategies. Diverse therapeutic options are emerging, involving small molecules, apheresis therapy, improved intestinal microecology, cell therapy, and exosome therapy. In addition, patient education partly upgrades the efficacy of IBD treatment. Recent advances in the management of IBD have led to a paradigm shift in the treatment goals, from targeting symptom-free daily life to shooting for mucosal healing. In this review, the latest progress in IBD treatment is summarized to understand the advantages, pitfalls, and research prospects of different drugs and therapies and to provide a basis for the clinical decision and further research of IBD.
Leukocyte adsorption apheresis for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum
Management of cutaneous disorders related to inflammatory bowel disease
Almost one-third of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develop skin lesions. Cutaneous disorders associated with IBD may be divided into 5 groups based on the nature of the association: specific manifestations (orofacial and metastatic IBD), reactive disorders (erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum, pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans, Sweet’s syndrome and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa), miscellaneous (epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, bullous pemphigoid, linear IgA bullous disease, squamous cell carcinoma-Bowen’s disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, secondary amyloidosis and psoriasis), manifestations secondary to malnutrition and malabsorption (zinc, vitamins and iron deficiency), and manifestations secondary to drug therapy (salicylates, immunosupressors, biological agents, antibiotics and steroids). Treatment should be individualized and directed to treating the underlying IBD as well as the specific dermatologic condition. The aim of this review includes the description of clinical manifestations, course, work-up and, most importantly, management of these disorders, providing an assessment of the literature on the topic.
An open-label prospective randomized multicenter study shows very rapid remission of ulcerative colitis by intensive granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis as compared with routine weekly treatment
Atsushi Sakuraba 1, Satoshi Motoya, Kenji Watanabe, Masakazu Nishishita, Kazunari Kanke, Toshiyuki Matsui, Yasuo Suzuki, Tadayuki Oshima, Reiko Kunisaki, Takayuki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Hanai, Ken Fukunaga, Naoki Yoshimura, Toshimi Chiba, Shinsuke Funakoshi, Nobuo Aoyama, Akira Andoh, Hiroshi Nakase, Yohei Mizuta, Ryoichi Suzuki, Taiji Akamatsu, Masahiro Iizuka, Toshifumi Ashida, Toshifumi Hibi
Objectives: Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) has shown efficacy in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). However, with routine weekly treatment, it may take several weeks to achieve remission, and to date, the efficacy of a more frequent treatment schedule remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of intensive GMA treatment in patients with active UC. Methods: This was an open-label, prospective, randomized multicenter study to compare an intensive, two GMA sessions per week, with the routine, one GMA session per week. A total of 163 patients with mild-to-moderately active UC were randomly assigned to routine weekly treatment or intensive treatment. The maximum number of sessions of GMA permitted was 10. However, when patients achieved remission, GMA was discontinued. Remission rate at the end of the study, time to remission, and adverse events were assessed in both groups. Results: Of the 163 patients, 149 were available for efficacy analysis as per protocol, 76 were in weekly GMA, and 73 were in intensive GMA. At the end of the study period, clinical remission was achieved in 41 of 76 patients (54.0%) in weekly GMA and in 52 of 73 patients (71.2%) in intensive GMA (P=0.029). The mean time to remission was 28.1+/-16.9 days in the weekly GMA treatment group and 14.9+/-9.5 days in the intensive GMA group (P<0.0001). Intensive GMA was well tolerated without GMA-related serious adverse side effects. Conclusions: Intensive GMA in patients with active UC seems to be more efficacious than weekly treatment, and significantly reduced the patients’ morbidity time without increasing the incidence of side effects.
Contact UsFor more informationContact Us