A retrospective study to investigate the efficacy and safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with ulcerative colitis
Background and aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis has a poor prognosis and can be accompanied by ulcerative colitis. Infection control is essential, so immunosuppressive drugs should ideally be preferably. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis does not suppress the immune system and is used to treat ulcerative colitis. Therefore, this study investigated the efficacy and safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated data from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with ulcerative colitis who visited our hospital from April 2000 to December 2022 and underwent granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (n = 10, number of treatment cycles = 15). Study endpoints were remission induction rate and safety, assessed as changes in liver functions and adverse events.
Results: Seven of the 10 patients were male. The median (min-max) age was 23 (18-77) years. The most common disease type was right-dominant pancolitis. Remission occurred after 86.6% of cycles (13/15). Serum alkaline phosphatase and Aspartate transaminase were significantly lower after treatment (P = .0124, P = .002), and no negative effects on liver function were seen. The only adverse events were headache (n = 1) and decreased blood pressure (n = 1).
Conclusions: Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis has high efficacy for intestinal lesions and improves alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase levels (high levels are a poor prognosis factor). It appears to be a treatment option in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with ulcerative colitis.
A retrospective study to investigate the efficacy and safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with ulcerative colitis – PubMed (nih.gov)
Therapeutic Granulomonocytapheresis as a Non-pharmacologic Treatment Option for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Efficacy Reports on a Wide Age Range and Disease Profile
The major phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), which cause debilitating symptoms, including bloody diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, and fever. Patients require life-long immunosuppressive medications, which cause adverse side effects as additional morbidity factors. However, IBD is initiated and perpetuated by inflammatory cytokines, and given that in patients with IBD myeloid lineage leukocytes are elevated with activation behavior and release inflammatory cytokines, selective depletion of elevated granulocytes and monocytes by granulomonocytapheresis is a relevant therapeutic option for IBD patients. Therefore, a column filled with specially designed beads as granulomonocytapheresis carriers for selective adsorption of myeloid lineage leukocytes (Adacolumn) has been applied to treat patients with active IBD. Patients receive up to 10 granulomonocytapheresis sessions at one or two sessions per week. During each session, the carriers adsorb up to 60% of the myeloid leukocytes from the blood that passes through the granulomonocytapheresis column. Efficacy rates in the UC setting have been as high as 85% in steroid-naïve patients, and 100% in drug-naïve, first-episode cases, but patients with a long duration of active IBD and extensive colonic lesions that have become refractory to pharmacological treatment have not responded well. However, granulomonocytapheresis has a favorable safety profile. Given that immunosuppressive medications used to treat IBD potentially may increase the risk of severe viral infection, non-drug granulomonocytapheresis should be a favorable treatment strategy. Further, by targeting granulomonocytapheresis to patients with background features and identifying a patient as a likely responder, futile use of medical resources is avoided.
Pyoderma gangrenosum in ulcerative colitis patient treated with vedolizumab: adsorptive granulocyte/monocyte apheresis as a new therapeutic option refractory cases – a case report and literature review
Extraintestinal manifestations occur rather frequently in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease patients and are usually related to an exacerbation of the underlying intestinal bowel disease but sometimes may run a course independent of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). About one-third of patients with IBD develop extraintestinal manifestations, such as pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). PG is an uncommon inflammatory skin disorder of unknown pathogenesis. There are no specific serological or histological markers, and diagnosis is predominantly clinical. Topical and systemic therapies are both vital aspects of treatment and immune modulators have been used with increasing success in recent years, although immunosuppressive drugs raise some concerns due to an increased risk of serious and opportunistic infections and cancer, particularly in elderly and comorbid patients, underlining the unmet need for safer alternative therapies. Thus, in this case report, we highlighted an adsorptive granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMA) as a new therapeutic possibility in IBD patients with extraintestinal manifestations. We report a case of a 60-year woman with a history of UC with a Mayo grade 3 score which was associated with a PG. Given that the patients maintained clinical remission with vedolizumab, we preferred not to perform a combined treatment with other antitumor necrosis factor-alpha or ciclosporin, thus avoiding an increased risk of serious infections in the patient. Therefore, we performed the extracorporeal leukocyte apheresis. The patient progressed favorably, with progressive improvement of skin and bowel disease. Therefore, adsorptive GMA has a very favorable safety profile and has been confirmed in numerous studies. In this study, we underlined that an intensive regimen of GMA paves the way to an ideal option for patients with severe and refractory PG complicated with UC.
Pyoderma gangrenosum in ulcerative colitis patient treated with vedolizumab: adsorptive granulocyte/monocyte apheresis as a new therapeutic option refractory cases – a case report and literature review – PubMed (nih.gov)
Real-world effectiveness and safety of advanced therapies for the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC): evidence from a systematic literature review (SLR)
Makoto Naganuma 1, Taku Kobayashi 2, Reiko Kunisaki 3, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka 4, Shojiro Yamamoto 5, Ami Kawamoto 6, Daisuke Saito 7, Kosaku Nanki 8, Kazuyuki Narimatsu 9, Hisashi Shiga 10, Motohiro Esaki 11, Shinichiro Yoshioka 12, Shingo Kato 13, Masayuki Saruta 14, Shinji Tanaka 15, Eriko Yasutomi 16, Kaoru Yokoyama 17, Kei Moriya 18, Yoshikazu Tsuzuki 19, Makoto Ooi 20, Mikihiro Fujiya 21, Atsushi Nakazawa 22, Takayuki Abe 23, Tadakazu Hisamatsu 6; Japanese UC Study Group J Gastroenterol. 2023 Dec;58(12):1198-1210. doi: 10.1007/s00535-023-02048-w.
Background: This multicenter observational cohort study aimed to evaluate the utilization and short-term efficacy of advanced therapy (AT) in hospitalized patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC).
Methods: In total, 221 patients with ASUC were enrolled between August 2020 and July 2021. The primary endpoint was clinical remission (CR, defined as a patient-reported outcome score < 2 with no blood in the stool) rate on Day 7 and 14 in hospitalized patients who received corticosteroids (CS) and AT.
Results: Among patients with ASUC, 120 and 101 patients received CS or any AT as first-line treatment, respectively. The CR rates on Day 7 and 14 were 22.5% and 35.0%, respectively, in hospitalized patients who received CS as first-line treatment. Most patients who used ATs had CS-dependent or frequent recurrences. Eight different ATs (apheresis, tacrolimus, infliximab, golimumab, tofacitinib, vedolizumab, ustekinumab, and cyclosporine) were used as first-line treatment in patients with ASUC, and the CR rates on Day 7 and 14 were 16.8% and 29.7%, respectively. Twenty-five patients received the second ATs after hospitalizations, and the CR rates on Day 7 and 14 were 0% and 12%, respectively. The CR rates on Day 14 were significantly higher in patients who changed to AT than in those whose dose of CS increased (34.0% vs 10.7%, p = 0.020) among patients who had already used CS before hospitalization.
Conclusion: Most first-use ATs were effective for patients with ASUC, while second-use ATs might have had limited benefits in inducing CR. These findings may contribute to considerations for the management of hospitalized patients.
Adsorptive cytapheresis in ulcerative colitis: A non-pharmacological therapeutic approach revisited
Adsorptive cytapheresis proves effective in a proportion of patients affected by ulcerative colitis. Relatively high cost and the need for apheresis facilities, prevented the widespread use of this therapeutic approach. More so following the introduction of anti-TNFα biosimilars which proved both effective and inexpensive. Anti-TNFα agents, however, are burdened by high rate of primary and secondary non-response and prompt switching to new, high-cost biologics, and small molecules. The present review analyzes advantages and disadvantages of adsorptive cytapheresis in the present clinical scenario and suggests its repositioning in the therapeutic workup of selected subgroups of ulcerative colitis patients. The extremely favorable safety profile makes adsorptive cytapheresis a viable therapeutic option in elderly and high-risk UC patients, as well as potential second-line treatment in corticosteroid-dependent patients and poor responders to first-line biologics.
The clinical efficacy and safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis in patients with Crohn’s disease: A multicenter retrospective cohort study
Background: A remission induction therapy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) with Adacolumn was given to patients with active Crohn’s disease (CD). However, establishing an appropriate treatment strategy for GMA in patients with active CD remains unclear. Methods: This multicenter retrospective cohort study encompassed patients with CD who underwent GMA in seven independent institutions in Japan from January 2010 to March 2023. All clinical data were obtained from medical records. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and subsequent clinical progression after GMA in patients with CD. Result: This study enrolled 173 patients with active inflammatory bowel disease who underwent GMA with Adacolumn, and among them, 16 patients with CD with mild to moderate disease activity were analyzed. Concomitant medication, including steroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, was used in 93.7% of all cases. The overall remission and response rates were 25.0% and 68.8%, respectively. The response rate between groups concerning the frequency and total GMA sessions revealed no significant difference. Six (37.5%) patients experienced adverse events (AEs). All AEs were related to the trouble in blood access and recovered soon without any sequelae. Regarding the factors associated with response to GMA, the responder group had a significantly longer disease duration (336 vs 44 months, p = 0.036) and exhibited a relatively lower rate of intestinal strictures and a median score of a simple endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD) (9.1 vs 60 %, p = 0.063 and 10 vs 21.5, p = 0.091, respectively). Further, all patients responding to GMA received biologics that were continuously used before and after GMA. Furthermore, 36.4% of patients remained on the same biologics 52 weeks after GMA. Notably, all patients who continued the same biologics had previously experienced a loss of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agent. Conclusion: Therefore, GMA may exhibit heightened effectiveness in patients with moderately active CD without severe endoscopic activity. Moreover, it represents a potential novel therapeutic option for refractory CD, particularly with insufficient response to biologics.
Combined effects of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis and corticosteroids on ulcerative colitis
Several new treatments for ulcerative colitis have been developed recently. The depletion of leukocytes by granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) was developed and adapted for patients with ulcerative colitis with rare adverse events. We investigated whether treatment with GMA and prednisolone (GMA + PSL) is more effective than PSL alone for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. Forty-seven patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 47 patients, 27 received PSL, while 20 received GMA + PSL. The clinical activity of ulcerative colitis was evaluated using the Lichtiger clinical activity index (CAI) and serum levels of C-reactive protein. Mayo endoscopic score (MES) was used to examine endoscopic activity. The clinical remission rate was significantly higher in the GMA + PSL group than in the PSL group (65% vs 29.6%, p = 0.0206). The mucosal healing rate was also significantly higher in the GMA + PSL group than in the PSL group (60% vs 26%, p = 0.0343). The combination of GMA and steroids may be more effective than steroids alone for inducing clinical remission and mucosal healing in patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.
A case of ulcerative colitis-related postoperative enteritis treated with granulocyte and monocyte apheresis
A 46-year-old man, receiving continuous steroid therapy for refractory ulcerative colitis with an insufficient response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, presented with left buttock pain. He was diagnosed with steroidal left femoral head necrosis, and total proctocolectomy with permanent ileostomy was performed. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient developed general fatigue, abdominal pain, and severe ileostomy diarrhea. Computed tomography revealed continuous intestinal edema from the descending duodenal leg to the upper jejunum. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed deep ulcers, coarse mucosa, and duodenal erosion. Based on clinical progress, findings, and pathology, the patient was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis-related postoperative enteritis. Although 5-aminosalicylic acid treatment was initiated, his symptoms persisted, bloody diarrhea from colostomy was observed. Subsequently, granulocyte and monocyte apheresis treatment was added. Symptoms and endoscopic findings improved with granulocyte and monocyte apheresis. Azathioprine was introduced as maintenance therapy, and no sign of recurrence was observed. Although ulcerative colitis-related postoperative enteritis has no definitive treatment, granulocyte and monocyte apheresis may be considered for initial treatment.
Use of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in dermatology (Review)
Exp Ther Med 2022 Jun 24;24(2):536. doi: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463. eCollection 2022 Aug. DOI: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463
Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal treatment that selectively removes activated myeloid lineage leukocytes from peripheral blood. This technique consists of a column with cellulose acetate beads as absorptive leukocytapheresis carriers, and was initially used to treat ulcerative colitis. A literature search was conducted to extract recently published studies about the clinical efficacy of GMA in patients with different skin disorders, reporting information on demographics, clinical symptoms, treatment and clinical course. Dermatological diseases, in which GMA has been performed, include generalized pustular psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, Behcet’s disease, Sweet’s syndrome, adult-onset Still’s disease, impetigo herpetiformis, reactive arthritis, acne and hidradenitis suppurativa syndrome, cutaneous allergic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In most patients, GMA was started after the failure of conventional therapeutic options and it was helpful in the majority of cases. Based on the information summarized, GMA could be considered a valid non-pharmacological treatment option for patients with several dermatological conditions, which are difficult to treat with other pharmacological preparations.
PASH syndrome; cutaneous allergic vasculitis; granulocyte and monocyte apheresis; neutrophilic dermatoses; reactive arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus.
Apheresis: A cell-based therapeutic tool for the inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a hallmark of leukocyte infiltration, followed by the release of cytokines and interleukins. Disease progression to Ulcerative Colitis (UC) or Crohn’s Disease (CD) remained largely incurable. The genetic and environmental factors disrupt enteral bacteria in the gut, which hampers the intestinal repairing capability of damaged mucosa. Commonly practiced pharmacological therapies include 5-aminosalicylic acid with corticosteroids and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. New interventions such as CDP571 and TNF-blocking RDP58 report the loss of patient response. This review discusses the non-pharmacologic selective granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis (GMA) and leukocytapheresis (LCAP) that have been proposed as treatment modalities that reduce mortality. GMA, an extracorporeal vein-to-vein technique, presents a strong safety profile case for its use as a viable therapeutic option compared to GMA’s conventional medication safety profile. GMA reported minimal to no side effects in the pediatric population and pregnant women. Numerous studies report the efficacious nature of GMA in UC patients, whereas data on CD patients is insufficient. Its benefits outweigh the risks and are emerging as a favored non-pharmacological treatment option. On the contrary, LCAP uses a general extracorporeal treatment that entraps leukocytes and suppresses cytokine release. It has been deemed more efficacious than conventional drug treatments, the former causing better disease remission, and maintenance. Patients with UC/CD secondary to complications have responded well to the treatment. Side effects of the procedure have remained mild to moderate, and there is little evidence of any severe adverse event occurring in most age groups. LCAP decreases the dependence on steroids and immunosuppressive therapies for IBD. The review will discuss the role of GMA and LCAP.
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