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P996 Clinical Efficacy and Predictive Factors for the Effectiveness of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis:A Retrospective Observational Single Center Study

F Kenta, S Kensuke, T Shun, W Ryosuke, N Yusuke, Y Ren, S Kentaro, S Itsuki, O Hisashi, M Takuto
Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, Volume 18, Issue Supplement_1, January 2024, Page i1807,

Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis (GMA) is one of the valuable non-immunosuppressive therapies in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, due to the limited number of facilities where GMA can be performed, there are few reports on the combined effects of GMA and prednisolone (PSL), the frequency of GMA implementation or predictive factors for the effectiveness. In this study, we examined the combined effect of GMA and PSL as a remission induction therapy, the frequency of GMA and predictive factors.

A retrospective observational study was conducted at Kushiro Rosai Hospital. We analyzed clinical data from UC patients who underwent GMA from February 2015 to May 2023.

The study included 54 patients (30 males and 24 females), with a median age of 48 years and a median disease duration of 2 years. The median Lichtiger-CAI (L-CAI) was 8. There were 43 patients of pancolitis. There were 51 biologics-naïve patients and 3 biologics-experienced patients. Concomitant medications included 5-ASA agents in 21 patients, immunomodulators in 7 patients, and PSL in 31 patients. The median CRP was 1.19 mg/dl and the median albumin was 3.5 g/dl. Adverse events were observed in 3 patients (fatigue, dizziness, palpitations). The median number of GMA sessions was 10, with 33 patients undergoing twice weekly and 9 patients three times weekly. The clinical remission rate was 80% (43/54), and the clinical response rate was 89% (48/54), with a significant improvement in the median L-CAI from 8 to 3 before and after GMA (P<0.001). In the comparison between the PSL concomitant group and the non-PSL group, the clinical remission rate was 83.9% (26/31) in PSL group and 73.9% (17/23) in non-PSLgroup (P=0.369). The clinical response rate was significantly higher in the PSL group (87% (27/31)) than in non-PSL group (52.2% (12/23)) (P=0.004). There was no significant difference in the clinical remission/response rate between the group that underwent GMA twice a week (76.9% (30/39)/84.6% (33/39)) and three times a week (77.8% (7/9)/77.8% (7/9)). In univariate analysis, biologics-naïve was extracted as a contributing factor to clinical remission. The cumulative remission rate at 52 weeks was 72% overall. There was no significant difference in the cumulative remission rate between the PSL group (76.8%) and the non-PSL group (67.6%) (P=0.524). There was also no significant difference between the twice-weekly group (75%) and the three-times-weekly group (57.1%) (P=0.236). Conclusion GMA for UC was found to be useful and safely performed as a remission induction therapy. Concomitant use of PSL increased the clinical response rate. The frequency of GMA showed that three times per week was as effective as two times per week.

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Combination of granulocyte-monocyte apheresis and tofacitinib: Multicentre and retrospective study

Iago Rodríguez-Lago 1, Fiorella Cañete 2, Elena Guerra-Del-Río 3, Claudia Herrera-deGuise 4, Eva Iglesias 5, Eduardo Leo 6, Yamile Zabana 7, Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta 8, Daniel Ginard 9, José Luis Cabriada 10
Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2024 Jan 23:S0210-5705(24)00022-0. doi: 10.1016/j.gastrohep.2024.01.004. Online ahead of print.
[Article in English, Spanish]

Objective: Granulocyte-monocyte apheresis (GMA) has shown to be safe and effective in treating ulcerative colitis (UC), also in combination with biologics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining GMA after primary non-response (PNR) or loss of response (LOR) to tofacitinib (TOFA) in patients with UC.

Patients and methods: Retrospective study including all patients with refractory UC who received GMA plus TOFA. Efficacy was assessed 1 and 6 months after finishing GMA by partial Mayo score, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal calprotectin (FC). Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used in the statistical analysis.

Results: Twelve patients were included (median 46 years [IQR, 37-58]; 67% female; 67% E3). Patients were mostly receiving TOFA 10mg bid (75%), and 33% also concomitant steroids at baseline. Median partial Mayo score at baseline was 7 (IQR, 5-7), and it decreased to a median of 2 (IQR, 0-3) and 0 (IQR, 0-3) after 1 and 6 months (p=0.027 and 0.020, respectively), while no differences were found in CRP and FC. Clinical remission was achieved by 6 patients both at 1 (50%) and 6 months (67%). CF values<250mg/kg were achieved by 2 and 4 patients at 1 and 6 months (data available in 5 and 7 patients, respectively). No patient required dose-escalation of TOFA, and one patient was able to de-escalate the drug. No patient required colectomy and all patients under steroids were able to stop them. Conclusion: The combination of GMA and TOFA can be effective in selected cases of UC after PNR or LOR to this drug

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Severe and refractory gastrointestinal toxicity due to immune checkpoint inhibitors: clinical experience in a tertiary referral hospital

Elena Céspedes Martínez, Virginia Robles Alonso, Claudia Herrera-De Guise, Luis Mayorga, Francesc Casellas, María Roca-Herrera, Natalia Borruel, Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2023;115(10):567-573

Introduction: immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are increasingly used to treat several types of cancer. These drugs lead to a wide range of toxicities. Immune-related gastrointestinal adverse events are common and potentially severe. In this manuscript, we recount the real clinical experience in a tertiary center. Methods: a retrospective and observational study was conducted in adult patients under ICI treatment. Included patients had been referred to the Gastrointestinal Service of Hospital Universitario Vall d’Hebron for evaluation of severe toxicities, from January 2017 to January 2020, for whom the clinical, epidemiological and evolutive data were collected. Results: a total of 18 patients were included. Fifty-five percent received anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (anti PD-L1), 11 % received anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and 33 % received both treatments. The toxicities were manifested as enterocolitis, microscopic colitis and gastritis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in seven patients; all were proved to have histological changes on duodenum biopsies. Treatment was stopped in all patients and steroids were initiated. Sixty-six per cent achieved clinical remission with steroids. Five patients received anti-TNF treatment (infliximab). Only one of the five had responded. Two anti-TNF refractory patients received ustekinumab, with an appropriate clinical response. One patient received apheresis granulocyte as concomitant treatment. A patient with a steroid-dependent course started vedolizumab. Three patients had other immune-related adverse events. Conclusion: gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events are acquiring a higher profile in daily practice and gastroenterologists play an even greater role in the management of these patients.

Severe and refractory gastrointestinal toxicity due to immune checkpoint inhibitors: clinical experience in a tertiary referral hospital – PubMed (

REED – Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas

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Induction Therapy With a Combination of Weekly Adalimumab Plus Intensive Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis and Failure of Conventional Agents, Biologics and Janus Kinase Inhibitor

Satoshi Tanida 1 2Keiji Ozeki 3Takahito Katano 3Mamoru Tanaka 3Takaya Shimura 3Eiji Kubota 3Hiromi Kataoka 3Takuya Takahama 2Shun Sasoh 2Yoshimasa Kubota 2Tesshin Ban 2Tomoaki Ando 2Makoto Nakamura 2Takashi Joh 2J Clin Med Res. 2023 Mar;15(3):181-186. doi: 10.14740/jocmr4887

Every-week (ew) adalimumab (ADA) maintenance following induction therapy with a standard induction regimen has recently been approved for use in Japan. The efficacy and safety of combination therapy with ew-ADA maintenance following standard induction regimen plus intensive granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) (two sessions/week) for the treatment of refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) displaying failure of conventional, biologics and Janus kinase inhibitor have not been evaluated previously. The present retrospective study evaluated the 10-week efficacy of this combination therapy among refractory UC patients. Six patients were given initial ADA combination therapy (ADA at 160 mg in week 0, ADA 80 mg in week 2, and 40 mg in week 4, followed by ew-ADA at 40 mg/week) plus intensive GMA. One patient (16.6%) achieved clinical remission and two patients (33.3%) achieved endoscopic improvement by week 10. After excluding two patients who discontinued treatment, mean full Mayo score (P = 0.14), endoscopic subscore (P = 0.18) and C-reactive protein level (P = 0.27) at 10 weeks were numerically decreased compared with baseline in the remaining four cases, although the differences were not significant. Use of ew-ADA maintenance following standard induction regimen plus intensive GMA appears unlikely to achieve satisfactory induction of clinical remission in UC patients for whom conventional agents, biologics and Janus kinase inhibitors have failed.

Induction Therapy With a Combination of Weekly Adalimumab Plus Intensive Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis and Failure of Conventional Agents, Biologics and Janus Kinase Inhibitor – PubMed (

Induction Therapy With a Combination of Weekly Adalimumab Plus Intensive Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis and Failure of Conventional Agents, Biologics and Janus Kinase Inhibitor – PMC (

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Efficacy of cytapheresis for induction therapy and extra-intestinal skin manifestations of ulcerative colitis

Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Osamu Nomura,Kei Nomura,Mayuko Haraikawa,Keiichi Haga,Dai Ishikawa,Taro Osada,Ken Yamaji,Shigaku Ikeda,Akihito Nagahara

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Mar 5. doi: 10.1111/1744-9987.13823. Online ahead of print.

Introduction: In recent years, the prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases has been increasing in Japan due to the westernization of lifestyles. Many patients have been reported to have extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) at least once. Skin lesions occur with a high degree of frequency among EIMs, with erythema nodosum (EN) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) the main complications. Cytapheresis is again attracting attention as a treatment with few side effects. Methods: We investigated the therapeutic effect of cytapheresis on ulcerative colitis (UC) and cutaneous EIMs. Between 2008 and 2021, 240 patients with active UC had induction therapy by cytapheresis at our hospital. Results: Remission and response rates were 50.0% and 67.5%, respectively. Apheresis was performed on seven patients with PG and five patients with EN with a good response. Serious adverse events were not observed. Conclusion: This retrospective assessment of efficacy showed that EN and PG responded favorably to cytapheresis.

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Adsorptive Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis Is Effective in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Both with and without Concomitant Prednisolone

Keiji Matsuda 1 2Kohei Ohno 1Yuka Okada 1Takahiro Yagi 1Mitsuo Tsukamoto 1Yoshihisa Fukushima 1Atsushi Horiuchi 1Ryu Shimada 1 2Tsuyoshi Ozawa 1 2Tamuro Hayama 1 2Takeshi Tsuchiya 1 2Junko Tamura 1Hisae Iinuma 1Keijiro Nozawa 1 2Hitoshi Aoyagi 2 3Akari Isono 2 3Koichiro Abe 2 3Shinya Kodashima 2 3Takatsugu Yamamoto 2 3Yoshitaka Kawasaki 4Yoshifuru Tamura 4Yuko Sasajima 5Fukuo Kondo 5Yojiro Hashiguchi 1 2 , Inflamm Intest Dis, 2020 Feb;5(1):36-41.

The effect of GMA with concomitant PSL (Prednisolone) and that of GMA without PSL were not different, and GMA was effective irrespective of PSL administration. The present study showed that GMA had efficacy and led many UC patients treated by PSL to be steroid free with no safety concern in the real world, although there is the possibility of recruitment bias due to the retrospective nature of the study.

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Retrospective Single Center Study of Granulocyte Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis Treatment in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Kajsa Edfors 1Dagny Ståhlberg 1Charlotte Söderman 1 , Ther Apher Dial. 2016 Feb;20(1):79-85.

 Most frequently reported was headache (N = 4). GMA seems to be a valuable adjuvant treatment regime in the care of patients with refractory IBD.

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Cytapheresis in patients with severe ulcerative colitis after failure of intravenous corticosteroid: a long-term retrospective cohort study

Ken Fukunaga 1Kazuko NagaseTakeshi KusakaNobuyuki HidaYoshio OhdaKoji YoshidaKatsuyuki TozawaKoji KamikozuruM IimuroShiro NakamuraHiroto MiwaTakayuki Matsumoto, Gut Liver. 2009 Mar;3(1):41-7. doi: 10.5009/gnl.2009.3.1.41

This study suggest that CAP is an effective therapy in patients who are refractory to conventional medications including iv corticosteroid. Increased remission rates should be expected in refractory patients with moderately severe UC.

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A retrospective search for predictors of clinical response to selective granulocyte and monocyte apheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis

Yasuo Suzuki 1Naoki YoshimuraKatsuyuki FukudaKoji ShiraiYasushi SaitoAbbi R Saniabadi

Dig Dis Sci.  2006 Nov;51(11):2031-8. doi: 10.1007/s10620-006-9199-9. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

Recently, selective granulocytapheresis (Adacolumn) has appeared as a new treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This study sought to determine predictors of response to this new nonpharmacologic mode of therapy by retrospectively evaluating 28 patients who received granulocytapheresis after experiencing active ulcerative colitis (UC). Between April 2000 and March 2004, 28 consecutive patients received granulocytapheresis for active UC with the Adacolumn, which is filled with cellulose acetate beads as the column leukocytapheresis carriers; the carriers adsorb granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and a small fraction of lymphocytes (FcgammaR and complement receptors bearing leukocytes). Each patient could receive up to 10 Adacolumn sessions, at 2 sessions per week. In 2004, clinical response was retrospectively evaluated. Seven days after the last Adacolumn session, 20 of 28 patients had remission (colitis activity index [CAI] < or =4) including all 8 patients who had their first UC episode. The mean duration of UC in the 8 first episode cases was 3.4 months compared with 40.2 months for all 28 patients and 65.4 months for the 8 nonresponders. The response to Adacolumn was independent of basal CAI. The 8 nonresponders were given conventional medication (CM) or cyclosporine (CsA) if the former failed. Two responded to CM, 3 to CsA, and 3 underwent colectomy. First UC episode and short disease duration appear good predictors of response to granulocytapheresis. Selective granulocytapheresis might be an effective first-line treatment.

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