Scientific corner

JO2-01 Effect of cellulose acetate beads on the release of interleukin-13 at different temperatures

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 146

We investigated the effect of cellulose acetate (CA) beads, carriers for granulocyte and monocyte
adsorptive apheresis (GMA), on the release of interleukin (IL)-13, an inflammatory cytokine. We
incubated peripheral blood with and without CA beads at 5ºc, 25 ºc , 37 ºc and 43 ºc and measured
the IL-13 concentration. The IL-13 concentration in the samples incubated without CA beads
increased as the temperature increased; however, the IL-13 concentration in the samples incubated
with CA beads decreased as the temperature increased from 5 ºc to 37 ºc . These results suggest that
the optimal temperature of GMA for anti-inflammatory effects may be at body temperature.

Scientific corner

Inhibition of Inflammatory Cytokines and Induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells by the Effects of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis.

Masanao Sakanoue 1Yuko Higashi 1Takuro Kanekura 1 ,Ther Apher Dial. 2017 Dec;21(6):628-634.

The clinical effectiveness of GMA may be attributable to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the induction of anti-inflammatory MDSCs by iC3b activation via the CA beads in the GMA column.

Scientific corner

Effect of Temperature on Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption to Cellulose Acetate Beads.

Shoichi Nishise 1Yuji Takeda 2Yasuhiko Abe 1Yu Sasaki 1Hidetoshi Nara 2Hironobu Asao 2Yoshiyuki Ueno 1 , Ther Apher Dial. 2017 Jun;21(3):248-254.

These results suggest that warming the column during GMA might increase GM adsorption to CA beads, thereby enhancing the clinical efficacy of GMA.

Scientific corner

Relationship Between Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Release and Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption to Cellulose Acetate Beads

Shoichi Nishise 1Yasuhiko AbeEiki NomuraTakeshi SatoYu SasakiDaisuke IwanoKazuya YoshizawaMakoto YagiYuko NishiseYoshiyuki Ueno, Ther Apher Dial. 2014 Jun;18(3):252-7.

umor necrosis factor-α, (TNF)-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, is produced by activated granulocytes and monocytes (GMs) and implicated as a major factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis. Reduction of TNF-α should improve IBD pathology. GM adsorptive apheresis (GMA) is an effective therapy for inflammatory disorders including IBD. GM adsorption to cellulose acetate (CA) beads induces anti-inflammatory cytokine release, although these effects on TNF-α release are not clarified. We hypothesized that GMA may inhibit TNF-α release. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of GM adsorption to CA beads on TNF-α release in vitro. Peripheral blood was incubated with and without CA beads and TNF-α was measured. For comparison, TNF-α was measured in another lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing peripheral blood sample incubated similarly. The amount of TNF-α in blood samples incubated with CA beads was significantly higher than in those incubated without beads, although it was significantly lower than TNF-α incubated with LPS-containing sample without beads. The amount of TNF-α after incubation with CA beads positively correlated with GM adsorption ratio. GM adsorption to CA beads induced a small amount of TNF-α release. This is the first report on TNF-α release induced via GM adsorption stimuli. The biological effects of TNF-α release during GM adsorption need to be clarified.

Scientific corner

Down-modulation of toll-like receptor 2 expression on granulocytes and suppression of interleukin-8 production due to in vitro treatment with cellulose acetate beads

Mayumi Hidaka 1Kenji Fukuzawa, Ther Apher Dial. 2011 Dec;15(6):572-8.

The Adacolumn, which is filled with cellulose acetate beads (CA beads), has been used as a medical device for inflammatory diseases. The CA beads selectively adsorb granulocytes and monocytes and remove them from the peripheral blood. The anti-inflammatory effects of the Adacolumn are possibly caused by removal of these cells but also due to the functional changes in the processed cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of CA beads treatment on modulation of the expression of innate immunity receptors such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and production of an inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8). Changes in the expressions of TLR1, 2, 4 and 6 in peripheral leukocytes exposed to CA beads were examined by flow cytometry. TLR2 expression on the surface of granulocytes exposed to CA beads was decreased, but the amount of intracellular TLR2 was increased, possibly by internalization. These changes were not observed in monocytes or lymphocytes. Peptidoglycan (PGN) treatment produced similar changes in TLR2 on granulocytes. We also measured the amounts of IL-8 in cultured blood treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and PGN, which are known TLR agonists. PGN-induced IL-8 production was lower in CA beads-treated leukocytes than that in non-treated leukocytes, but LPS did not induce these changes. Based on these findings, we conclude that the down-modulation of TLR2 and suppression of IL-8 production on granulocytes by CA beads, may play an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of the Adacolumn.

Scientific corner

Studies on the mechanisms of leukocyte adhesion to cellulose acetate beads: an in vitro model to assess the efficacy of cellulose acetate carrier-based granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis

Katsuya Hiraishi 1Yuji TakedaNoriyuki ShiobaraHiromu ShibusawaFumie JimmaNobuhito KashiwagiAbby R SaniabadiMasakazu Adachi, Ther Apher Dial. 2003 Jun;7(3):334-40.

Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) using a column filled with cellulose acetate (CA) beads (carriers) has been associated with a significant clinical efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. To obtain further understanding on the mechanisms of disease modification by cellulose acetate-carrier-based GMA, in the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of granulocyte and monocyte adhesion to CA beads following exposure of human peripheral blood to the carriers at 37 degrees C for up to 60 min under controlled conditions. Cellulose acetate beads selectively adsorbed granulocytes, monocytes. CD19+ (B cells) and CD56+ (NK cells) lymphocyte subpopulations. The granulocyte and monocyte adsorption was inhibited by heat-inactivated plasma and EDTA, indicating that the adsorption was plasma protein (immunoglobulin, complement) and calcium dependent. Accordingly, granulocyte and monocyte adsorption was markedly enhanced by coating the carriers with IgG. Similarly, C3b was adsorbed onto the CA beads as a marker of complement activation. The results indicated that IgG and active complement fragments mediated leukocyte adhesion to CA beads via the FcgammaR and/or leukocyte complement receptor like CR3. Additionally, CA beads induced loss of expression of TNF receptors on CD16- granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes, but not on CD3+ lymphocytes In conclusion, CA beads might be an appropriate biomaterial for inducing extracorporeal immunomodulation as a treatment for auto-immune diseases which are associated with pathological leukocyte activity.

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