Pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory keratinization disease (AiKD): Genetic predisposing factors and promising therapeutic targets
Pustular psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythematous plaques with sterile pustules. It includes the distinct clinical entities generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH) and palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (PPPP). Recently clarified pathomechanisms of pustular psoriasis indicate that hyperactivation of the skin innate immunity, including of the IL-1/IL-36 axis, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis. Autoinflammatory keratinization disease (AiKD) is the umbrella clinical entity for inflammatory keratinization disorders with genetic autoinflammatory pathomechanisms, and pustular psoriasis is a representative AiKD. To date, mutations/variants in five genes-IL36RN, CARD14, AP1S3, MPO and SERPINA3-have been reported to be genetic causative or predisposing factors for pustular psoriasis. The pathogenic mechanisms induced by the mutations/variants in these genes are all closely related to the excessive activation of skin innate immunity and autoinflammation. A number of biologics (e.g., tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, IL-17/IL-17 receptor inhibitors and IL-23 inhibitors) and granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis are used to treat pustular psoriasis. Recently, based on novel information on the pathomechanisms of pustular psoriasis, which are mainly associated with autoinflammation, inhibitors of several pathogenic pathways, including of the IL-1, IL-36, IL-8 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor signaling pathways, have been studied as emerging treatments.
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis induces apoptosis of neutrophils and release of a novel chemoattractant for desensitization of interleukin-8 response
Objective: Apoptotic cells participate in maintenance of homeostasis of the adaptive immune system. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) performed with an Adacolumn has been shown to have clinical efficacy together with immunomodulatory effects for immune-mediated disorder cases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or psoriatic arthritis. Although induction of apoptosis in neutrophils by GMA has been observed, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Methods: To focus on phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD) that induces apoptotic neutrophils, a comparative study utilizing a GMA-carrier (leukocyte adsorbing carrier for Adacolumn) and yeast particles was performed with in vitro and in vivo examinations. Results: L-selectin was significantly (P = 0.0133) shed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was promoted (P = 0.0019), and apoptosis induction was enhanced (P = 0.0087) by peripheral blood co-cultured with the GMA-carrier or yeast particles as compared to incubated blood alone. Furthermore, degranulation of myeloperoxidase, elastase, and lactoferrin was increased by both treatments, while the highest level of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist release was found with GMA-carrier treatment (P = 0.0087) as compared to the yeast particles. Plasma from blood treated with the GMA-carrier showed chemotactic activity, and suppressed neutrophil migration to IL-8 and LTB4. In vivo results demonstrated that neutrophil chemotaxis to IL-8 was desensitized (P = 0.0078) in rabbits following GMA apheresis, while CXCR1 and CXCR2 expressions in neutrophils were reduced by exposing peripheral blood to the GMA-carrier. Conclusions: GMA may regulate the immune system in patients with an immune-mediated disorder by inducing a biological response of neutrophils with a PICD-like reaction.
Sa1316 Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis (GMA) Might Be Useful for Patients With Ulcerative Colitis by Inhibition of S100A12-S100a12 Correlates With Acute and Chronic Inflammation by Induction of CCL and CXCL Chemokines
Shingo Kato, Kazuhito Kani, Hidehiko Takabayashi, Ryuichi Yamamoto, Koji Yakabi Gastroenterology 2011 140(5) Suppl. S-279–S-280
Backgrounds&Aims; Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) adsorbs mainly granulocyte and monocytes, as well as Leukocyteapheresis (LMA) filters many cells such as granulocyte, monocytes, lymphocytes and platelets. However, there was no significant difference in clinical effectiveness between GMA and LMA (Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;20:629). We hypothesized effectiveness of GMA and LMA might be dependent on depletion of granulocyte and monocytes. S100A12 was reported to be exclusively expressed in neutrophils and up-regulated by TNF α. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of serum S100 A12 concentration in the GMA treatments and whether S100A12 increases the expression of adhesion molecules, CXCL and CCL chemokines. Methods; 24 patients with ulcerative colitis were treated with GMA. Serum S100A12 was estimated by ELISAmethods.Clinicalactivityindex(CAI)andserumCRPconcentrationwerealsochecked. Immunohistochemical staining of S100A12 and receptor for advanced glication end products (RAGE) were performed in the operated specimens of patients with ulcerative colitis and with colonic carcinoma (control). HUVEC were seeded into 12 well plates and confluent plates were used to experiments. Each experiment was performed in triplicate. HUVEC were treated with human recombinant S100A12 protein. RNA was extracted by RNeasy Mini Kit. 1.5μg RNA was reverse-transcriptated into cDNA. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-8, CCL-2 (MCP1), CCL5 (RANTES), CXCL9 (IP-10) and CXCL10 (Mig) mRNA was quantitated by realtime PCR. Results; S100A12 staining was faintly recognized in the mucosal layer of normal control. S100A12 staining was increased in infiltrating cells in inflamed colon in patients with ulcerative colitis. Strong staining was also recognized in crypt abscess. RAGE staining was also faintly recognized in the epithelial cells in nornmal control. However, RAGE staining was increased in the inflamed epithelial cells. Significantly serum S100A12 concentration was positively correlated with CAI (n=34, p=0.02, rs=0.404). 16 patients were able to estimate S100A12 concentration in the points of pre-and post-GMA treatment. 13 patients wereGMA-respondersand3patientswere nonGMA-responders.SerumS100A12concentration was significantly decreased in GMA responders (pre-vs post-GMA, 1.34±1.08 vs 0.60±0.50, p<0.05). However, Serum S100A12 concentration of non GMA-responders was gradually increased with GMA treatments. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-8, IP-10, Mig, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA expressions were increased by S100A12 in HUVEC cell lines in time and dose-dependent manners. Conclusion; one of the mechanisms of GMA effect might be correlated with depletion of S100A12 by adsorption of activated neutrophils. S100A12 might aggravate acute and chronic inflammation by up-regulation of adhesion molecules, CXCL and CCL chemokines.
Down-modulation of toll-like receptor 2 expression on granulocytes and suppression of interleukin-8 production due to in vitro treatment with cellulose acetate beads
The Adacolumn, which is filled with cellulose acetate beads (CA beads), has been used as a medical device for inflammatory diseases. The CA beads selectively adsorb granulocytes and monocytes and remove them from the peripheral blood. The anti-inflammatory effects of the Adacolumn are possibly caused by removal of these cells but also due to the functional changes in the processed cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of CA beads treatment on modulation of the expression of innate immunity receptors such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and production of an inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8). Changes in the expressions of TLR1, 2, 4 and 6 in peripheral leukocytes exposed to CA beads were examined by flow cytometry. TLR2 expression on the surface of granulocytes exposed to CA beads was decreased, but the amount of intracellular TLR2 was increased, possibly by internalization. These changes were not observed in monocytes or lymphocytes. Peptidoglycan (PGN) treatment produced similar changes in TLR2 on granulocytes. We also measured the amounts of IL-8 in cultured blood treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and PGN, which are known TLR agonists. PGN-induced IL-8 production was lower in CA beads-treated leukocytes than that in non-treated leukocytes, but LPS did not induce these changes. Based on these findings, we conclude that the down-modulation of TLR2 and suppression of IL-8 production on granulocytes by CA beads, may play an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of the Adacolumn.
W1254 The Decreased TLR2 Expression and Elevated IL-8 Production On Peripheral Leukocytes in Patients with Active Ulcerative Colitis: the Modulation of the Leukocyte Sensitivity to Pgn By Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis
Suzuki, Yasuo; Yamada, Akihiro; Aoki, Hiroshi; Osamura, Aisaku; Nakamura, Kentaro; Yoshimatsu, Yasushi; Hosoe, Nobuo; Takada, Nobuo; Tsuda, Yukio; Shirai, Koji (2008). W1254 The Decreased TLR2 Expression and Elevated IL-8 Production On Peripheral Leukocytes in Patients with Active Ulcerative Colitis: the Modulation of the Leukocyte Sensitivity to Pgn By Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis. Gastroenterology, 134(4), A-665–. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(08)63105-4
BACKGROUND & AIM: Mucosal lesions of active ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by acute inflammatory cell (polymorphonuclear granulocyte, PMN) infiltrate and ulceration. Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) using a column device, Adacolumn, selectively adsorbs and removes leukocytes from the peripheral blood, and has been reported to be effective in patients with active UC. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on PMNs and monocytes in patients with active UC as compared to the level in healthy subjects and see the impact of GMA on TLR2. METHODS: Fortyeight patients with active UC, Clinical Activity Index (CAI, Lichtiger index) ≥5, were included in this study. Patients received several GMA sessions (maximum 10 sessions), and CAI ≤ 3 was considered remission. Blood samples were obtained from patients at each GMA session and also from healthy subjects (n=14), after obtaining informed consent. The expression of TLR2 was investigated by flowcytometry. In several samples, IL-8 production by cultured blood upon stimulation with peptidoglycan (PGN, a ligand for TLR2) was measured (n=21). RESULTS: An average of CAI at the entry was 11.0 (n=48), and remission rate by GMA was 56.3%(27/48). At the baseline, the expression of TLR2 on PMN of patients with active UC was significantly less than the level in healthy subjects (p<0.001). Further, the improvement in CAI was accompanied by a trend towards normalization of TLR2 on PMN (up-regulation, p<0.05) together with a significant fall (P<0.01) of plasma IL-8 level. However, as for the patients with still active symptoms (CAI>5) in course of GMA therapy, the decreased TLR2 on PMN and the elevated release of IL-8 from PGN-stimulated leukocytes were kept on. By exposing blood to the column carriers In Vitro, TLR2 expression on the cell surface of PMN was decreased, but increased within the cellular of PMN. Similarly, in the blood on column outflow of GMA, the TLR2 expression on PMN and IL-8 production by PGN-stimulation were significantly decreased (TLR2:P<0.001, IL-8:P<0.001), indicating that leukocyte sensitivity to PGN is weakened by GMA column. CONCLUSION: The expression of TLR2 on PMN in patients with active UC is significantly decreased compared with remission status or healthy subjects. In connection with the decreased TLR2 expression, the IL-8 production by PGN-stimulated leukocytes is elevated in patients with active UC. These changes seem to reflect PMN activation based on UC disease activity. GMA or exposure of blood to GMA carriers is associated with down-modulation of the TLR2 expression on PMN and also leukocyte sensitivity to PGN
Molecular fingerprints of neutrophil-dependent oxidative stress in inflammatory bowel disease
Neutrophil accumulation within epithelial crypts and in the intestinal mucosa directly correlates with clinical disease activity and epithelial injury in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current advances have defined the mechanisms by which neutrophils are activated or migrate across endothelial and mucosal epithelial cells. A better understanding of this process will likely provide new insights into novel treatment strategies for IBD. Especially, activated neutrophils produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase within intestinal mucosa, which induce oxidative stress. Posttranslational modification of proteins generated by these reactive species serves as a “molecular fingerprint” of protein modification by lipid peroxidation-, nitric oxide-, and myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants. Measurement of these modified proteins may serve both as a quantitative index of oxidative stress and an important new biological marker of clinical relevance to IBD. We have succeeded in the clinical development of a novel granulocyte adsorptive apheresis therapy for IBD. In this review, we discuss current advances in defining the role of neutrophil-dependent oxidative stress in IBD.
Suppression of Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion by Granulocyte/Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in Active Ulcerative Colitis
Akira Andoh,Tomoyuki Tsujikawa,Osamu Inatomi,Yasuyuki Deguchi,Kazunori Hata,Katsuyuki Kitoh,Masaya Sasaki,Keiichi Mitsuyama,Yoshihide Fujiyama Therap Apher Dial(2005) 9, 2; 23-127, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1774-9987.2005.00229.x
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of granulocyte/monocyte adsorption apheresis, changes were investigated in the cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Four patients with active UC were enrolled. All patients responded to granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis. A total of 20 sessions of four patients were analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral venous blood within 5min before and after each session of granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis. The cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α for 24h, and the secreted IL-8 and IL-6 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IL-1β-induced IL-8 and IL-6 secretion was significantly decreased after granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis. TNF-α-induced IL-8 secretion was also significantly decreased after apheresis, but there was no significant difference in TNF-α-induced IL-6 secretion (P = 0.052). In conclusion, granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis down-regulates the IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in PBMC. The induction of hyporesponsiveness to pro-inflammatory cytokines may be an important factor mediating the clinical effects of granulocyte/macrophage adsorptive apheresis in UC patients.
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