Scientific corner

Use of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in dermatology (Review)

Laura Gnesotto 1Guido Mioso 1Mauro Alaibac 1

Exp Ther Med 2022 Jun 24;24(2):536. doi: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463. eCollection 2022 Aug. DOI: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463

Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal treatment that selectively removes activated myeloid lineage leukocytes from peripheral blood. This technique consists of a column with cellulose acetate beads as absorptive leukocytapheresis carriers, and was initially used to treat ulcerative colitis. A literature search was conducted to extract recently published studies about the clinical efficacy of GMA in patients with different skin disorders, reporting information on demographics, clinical symptoms, treatment and clinical course. Dermatological diseases, in which GMA has been performed, include generalized pustular psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, Behcet’s disease, Sweet’s syndrome, adult-onset Still’s disease, impetigo herpetiformis, reactive arthritis, acne and hidradenitis suppurativa syndrome, cutaneous allergic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In most patients, GMA was started after the failure of conventional therapeutic options and it was helpful in the majority of cases. Based on the information summarized, GMA could be considered a valid non-pharmacological treatment option for patients with several dermatological conditions, which are difficult to treat with other pharmacological preparations.

 PASH syndrome; cutaneous allergic vasculitis; granulocyte and monocyte apheresis; neutrophilic dermatoses; reactive arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus.

Scientific corner

Pilot clinical study of Adacolumn cytapheresis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Helmut Soerensen 1Jana-Maria Schneidewind-MuellerDoris LangeNobuhito KashiwagiMarita FranzTakashi YokoyamaWolfgang Ramlow, Rheumatol Int. 2006 Mar;26(5):409-15.

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical effects of cytapheresis using the Adacolumn system (selective removal of circulating monocytes and granulocytes by means of an extracorporeal type column) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An open uncontrolled multicenter pilot study was conducted in 18 SLE patients who were showing a SLEDAI score of 8 or more under conventional medication. Patients with lupus nephritis (>class 1, WHO classification) were excluded. Extracorporeal cytapheresis with the Adacolumn system was administered once a week for five consecutive weeks. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated using the SLEDAI for 10 weeks after the first cytapheresis session. The median SLEDAI decreased from 16 at baseline to six at week 11 (10 weeks after the first apheresis) (p<0.001). Significant improvements in musculoskeletal and dermal systems were observed. Arthritis and alopecia were present in 14 and nine patients at baseline and this number decreased to five and one patients, respectively by week 11. Three mild and one moderate adverse events out of the 42 reported events were judged ‘probably related’ to the treatment; no serious adverse events were reported. Selective removal of monocytes and granulocytes from the blood in an extracorporeal circulation system was associated with clinical improvement in this small series of patients with SLE. Since this approach seems not to have the disadvantages of pharmacological immunosuppression, further controlled studies of Adacolumn cytapheresis are warranted in SLE.

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