Scientific corner

Apheresis: A cell-based therapeutic tool for the inflammatory bowel disease

Farah Yasmin 1Hala Najeeb 1Unaiza Naeem 1Abdul Moeed 1Thoyaja Koritala 2Salim Surani 3 4

World J Clin Cases  2022 Jul 26;10(21):7195-7208. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i21.7195.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a hallmark of leukocyte infiltration, followed by the release of cytokines and interleukins. Disease progression to Ulcerative Colitis (UC) or Crohn’s Disease (CD) remained largely incurable. The genetic and environmental factors disrupt enteral bacteria in the gut, which hampers the intestinal repairing capability of damaged mucosa. Commonly practiced pharmacological therapies include 5-aminosalicylic acid with corticosteroids and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. New interventions such as CDP571 and TNF-blocking RDP58 report the loss of patient response. This review discusses the non-pharmacologic selective granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis (GMA) and leukocytapheresis (LCAP) that have been proposed as treatment modalities that reduce mortality. GMA, an extracorporeal vein-to-vein technique, presents a strong safety profile case for its use as a viable therapeutic option compared to GMA’s conventional medication safety profile. GMA reported minimal to no side effects in the pediatric population and pregnant women. Numerous studies report the efficacious nature of GMA in UC patients, whereas data on CD patients is insufficient. Its benefits outweigh the risks and are emerging as a favored non-pharmacological treatment option. On the contrary, LCAP uses a general extracorporeal treatment that entraps leukocytes and suppresses cytokine release. It has been deemed more efficacious than conventional drug treatments, the former causing better disease remission, and maintenance. Patients with UC/CD secondary to complications have responded well to the treatment. Side effects of the procedure have remained mild to moderate, and there is little evidence of any severe adverse event occurring in most age groups. LCAP decreases the dependence on steroids and immunosuppressive therapies for IBD. The review will discuss the role of GMA and LCAP.

Scientific corner

Toxic Megacolon: Background, Pathophysiology, Management Challenges and Solutions

Jiten Desai 1Mohamed Elnaggar 2Ahmed A Hanfy 2Rajkumar Doshi 2

Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2020 May 19;13:203-210. doi: 10.2147/CEG.S200760. eCollection 2020.

Leukocytapheresis (LCAP) is useful in the management of TM

Scientific corner

Leukocytapheresis (LCAP) for Management
of Fulminant Ulcerative Colitis with
Toxic Megacolon

Koji Sawada 1Akimitsu EgashiraKunio OhnishiKen FukunagaTakeshi KusakaTakashi Shimoyama

Dig Dis Sci 2005 Apr;50(4):767-73. doi: 10.1007/s10620-005-2571-3.

Leukocytapheresis (LCAP) is a method of therapeutic apheresis to remove patients’ peripheral leukocytes by extracorporeal circulation. Previous studies showed that LCAP for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) was more effective and had fewer adverse effects compared to high-dose steroid therapy. However, there are no reports on the application of LCAP for UC patients with toxic megacolon (TM). This study reports the effectiveness and safety of LCAP in treating patients with severe or fulminant UC with TM. Six patients were enrolled in this study and LCAP sessions were performed three times per week for 2 weeks, followed by four further times in the next 4 weeks. After completion of therapy, four patients improved in TM and went into the remission stage of UC. The average Rachmilewitz clinical activity index of these four patients improved from 19.5 to 1. The remaining two patients had to undergo colectomy, however, the symptoms had been mitigated by LCAP and the operations were completed without any problems. These results suggest that LCAP is an additional effective and safe option for TM management in preventing colectomy or for bridging to a safer operation.

Contact UsFor more information

Contact Us