LS2-02 Tips for ensuring vascular access and maintaining extracorporeal circulation in pediatric blood purification therapy
poster at ISFA 2019 pag 164-165
Ensuring reliable vascular access (VA) and maintaining stable extracorporeal circulation are the most basic aspects of blood purification therapy (BPT). In children and neonates, specific tips could be helpful for BPT.
VA guidelines were published in 2011 and management methods have been unified. To ensure VA, it is necessary to determine a suitable placement site and catheter size (diameter and length), adjust the catheter tip position, and manage the catheters appropriately. It is common to use dialysis catheters for BPT, placing them in the central and peripheral veins. In neonates, the umbilical vein could also be one of the options, and central venous catheters and peripheral vein catheters could be used for BPT. In order to maintain stable extracorporeal circulation, it is necessary to maintain sufficient intravascular volume and blood pressure, set appropriate blood flow rates, and adjust the type and amount of anticoagulant. In children who cannot cooperate,
sedation management and catheter fixation should be performed to stabilize extracorporeal circulation.
There are also tips specialized for each disease state. In neonates, there is a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage and nafamostat mesylate is often used as an anticoagulant. In addition, it is necessary to increase the dose of anticoagulant or administer it from two places in the circuits. In patients with severe inflammatory bowel diseases, intestinal bleeding continues despite increased clotting function and hypovolemia is common. Heparin and nafamostat mesylate are chosen as anticoagulants. During BPT, monitoring activated clotting time, administering minimal anticoagulants, and administering transfusion and fluid load are useful methods to maintain stable extracorporeal circulation. BPT might be a powerful therapeutic tool for children as well as adults, ensuring reliable VA and maintaining stable extracorporeal circulation.
Efficacy of Granulocyte Apheresis in Pediatric Patients With Ulcerative Colitis: A Pilot Study
Ikeda, Hitoshi; Ishimaru, Yuki; Takayasu, Hajime; Fujino, Junko; Kisaki, Yoshiyuki; Otani, Yushi; Yamagishi, Junko; Tahara, Kazunori. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006; 43:592-6. doi: 10.1097/01.mpg.0000237928.07729.79
Objectives: Granulocyte apheresis (GCAP), involving the removal of granulocytes from the blood, may improve clinical symptoms and facilitate a reduction in the dose of steroids in adult patients with ulcerative colitis. As a preliminary trial, GCAP was used to taper the dose of steroids in 4 pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis. Methods: Three males and 1 female ranging from 11 to 17 years old were treated with GCAP once per week for 5 consecutive weeks/course. The ages of patients at clinical onset ranged from 8 to 12 years and the length of time from the clinical onset to GCAP treatment ranged from 28 to 58 months (median, 38.5 months). Results: In 2 patients, symptoms and signs indicating disease activity improved after 2 courses of GCAP. Laboratory data and endoscopic findings also improved after treatment and the clinical efficacy was judged to be excellent in these patients. In 1 patient, GCAP improved laboratory and endoscopic hallmarks, but bloody stools persisted. Finally, the treatment was ineffective in the fourth patient who eventually underwent surgery. Conclusions: GCAP is effective in improving clinical symptoms and may play an important role in converting steroid therapy to other treatments in children with steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis.
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