Scientific corner

Granulocyte-monocyte/macrophage apheresis for steroid-nonresponsive or steroid-intolerant severe alcohol-associated hepatitis: A pilot study

Ryosuke Kasuga 1, Po-Sung Chu 1, Nobuhito Taniki 1, Aya Yoshida 1, Rei Morikawa 1, Takaya Tabuchi 1, Fumie Noguchi 1, Karin Yamataka 1, Yukie Nakadai 1, Mayuko Kondo 1, Hirotoshi Ebinuma 1 2, Takanori Kanai 1, Nobuhiro Nakamoto 1

Background: Patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (SAH) have a high short-term mortality rate. Unmet needs exist in patients who are refractory to corticosteroids (CS) or are ineligible for early liver transplantation.

Methods: This was a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study conducted at a liver transplant center in Tokyo, Japan, starting in October 2015. Lille model and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score-defined CS nonresponsive or CS-intolerant patients with SAH who fulfilled the inclusion criteria (leukocytosis over 10,000/μL, etc.) were considered for enrollment. The median duration from admission to enrollment was 23 days (IQR, 14-31 days), after standard of care. Granulocyte-monocyte/macrophage apheresis (GMA) performed with Adacolumn twice per week, up to 10 times per treatment course, was evaluated.

Results: 13 GMA treatments were conducted through December 2021. Maddrey Discriminant Function was 53.217.7 at admission. The overall survival rate was 90.9% at 90 and 180 days. MELD scores significantly improved, from median (IQRs) of 23 (20-25) to 15 (13-21) after GMA (p<0.0001). Estimated mortality risks using the Lille model and MELD scores significantly improved from 20.9%±16.5% to 7.4%±7.3% at 2 months and from 30.4%±21.3% to 11.6%±10.8% at 6 months, respectively (both p<0.01), and were internally validated. The cumulative rate of alcohol relapse was 35.9% per year. No severe adverse events were observed. In exploratory analysis, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels were significantly correlated with prognostic systems such as MELD-Sodium scores after GMA (correlation coefficient= -0.9943, p<0.0001) but not before GMA (p=0.62). Conclusions: Compared to published studies, GMA is associated with a lower-than-expected 90- and 180-day mortality in patients with CS-nonresponsive or CS-intolerant SAH. GMA may meet the needs as a salvage anti-inflammatory therapy for SAH. (Trial registration: UMIN000019351 and jRCTs No.032180221) (274 words).

Scientific corner

Sequential therapy consisting of glucocorticoid infusions followed by granulocyte-monocyte absorptive apheresis in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis.

Kazuhiro Watanabe 1Yoshihito Uchida 1Kayoko Sugawara 1Kayoko Naiki 1Mie Inao 1Nobuaki Nakayama 1Satoshi Mochida 2 , J Gastroenterol 2017 Jul;52(7):830-837.

Sequential therapy combining glucocorticoid infusion and GMA was useful for attenuating liver injuries in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis by preventing rebound increases in inflammatory reactions after discontinuation of glucocorticoid infusions, except in patients with bacterial infections and/or multiple organ failure.

Scientific corner

Adacolumn Granulocyte-Apheresis for Alcoholic Hepatitis: Preliminary Study

V Morabito 1S Novelli 2L Poli 3G Ferretti 4F Ruberto 5F Pugliese 5R Pretagostini 3P B Berloco 3M Rossi 3 , Transplant Proc. 2016 Mar;48(2):352-8.

The Adacolumn apheresis was safe and was able to determine an improvement of clinical status of patients with reduction of inflammatory markers. More patients are needed to validate these results.

Contact UsFor more information

Contact Us