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Advancements in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Narrative Review of Diagnostics, Management, Epidemiology, Prevalence, Patient Outcomes, Quality of Life, and Clinical Presentation

Muhammad Ali Muzammil 1Fnu Fariha 2Tirath Patel 3Rohab Sohail 4Munesh Kumar 5Ejaz Khan 6Bushra Khanam 7Satesh Kumar 8Mahima Khatri 9Giustino Varrassi 10Prasanthi Vanga 112023 Jun 28;15(6):e41120. doi: 10.7759/cureus.41120.

The functionality and aging mechanism of antibodies physisorbed onto cellulosic films
was investigated. Blood grouping antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) were adsorbed onto smooth cellulose acetate (CAF) and regenerated
cellulose (RCF) films. Cellulose films and adsorbed IgG layers were characterized at the
air and liquid interface by X-ray and neutron reflectivity (NR), respectively. Cellulose film
208 Å thick (in air) swell to 386 Å once equilibrated in water. IgG adsorbs from solution
onto cellulose as a partial layer 62 Å thick. IgG and IgM antibodies were adsorbed onto
cellulose and cellulose acetate films, air dried, and aged at room temperature for periods
up to 20 days. Antibody functionality and surface hydrophobicity were measured everyday with the size of red blood cell (RBC) agglutinates (using RBC specific to IgG/IgM)
and the water droplet contact angle, respectively. The functionality of the aged IgG/IgM
decreases faster if physisorbed on cellulose than on cellulose acetate and correlates to
surface hydrophobicity. IgG physisorbed on RCF or CAF age better and remain functional longer than physisorbed IgM. We found a correlation between antibody stability
and hydrogen bond formation ability of the system, evaluated from antibody carbonyl
concentration and cellulosic surface hydroxyl concentration. Antibody physisorbs on cellulose by weak dipole forces and hydrogen bonds. Strong hydrogen bonding contributes
to the physisorption of antibody on cellulose into a non-functional configuration in which
the molecule relaxes by rotation of hydophobic groups toward the air interface.

Functionality of Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M Antibody Physisorbed on Cellulosic Films – PubMed (

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