Adacolumn apheresis for hepatitis C virus in patients waiting for kidney transplant. Preliminary study.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection occurs much more frequently in the hemodialysis population than in the general population. Patients with chronic kidney disease with persistent HCV infection may develop serious and progressive chronic liver disease, with associated long-term morbidity and mortality related to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Monocytes and macrophages are known to produce extrahepatic breeding sites and spread the disease. Our aim was to lower the levels of macrophages, granulocytes, monocytes, proinflammatory cells and viremia using an extracorporeal device: the Adacolumn ® leukocyte apheresis system (Otsuka). The Adacolumn is a direct hemoperfusion-type leukapheresis device. The column is a single-use (disposable) polycarbonate column with a capacity of about 335 mL, filled with 220-g cellulose acetate beads of 2 mm in diameter bathed in physiological saline. The carriers adsorb ”activated” granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages that bear Fc and complement receptors. The patients underwent five 1-hour sessions for five consecutive days. The column was placed in an extracorporeal setting with a perfusion rate of 30 mL/min and a duration of 60 minutes. A reduction of viremia was observed in all patients in association with a decrease in cytokine levels and a proportional decrease in immune cells. Although this study investigated responses in a small number of patients, it was shown that the Adacolumn changed the cellular immunity and promoted early viral response.
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