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Targeting neutrophils in inflammatory bowel disease: revisiting the role of adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis

Giorgos Bamias 1Evanthia Zampeli 2Eugeni Domènech 3 Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol  2022 Jul 19;1-15. doi: 10.1080/17474124.2022.2100759.

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). While any part of the digestive tract can be affected in CD, mucosal inflammation in UC is limited to the colon. Differences and similarities between the two conditions are reflected by their pathophysiology. Areas covered: An overview of immunological aspects, pharmacological management, and biomarkers of IBD is provided. The role of adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) is reviewed including its primary and secondary effects on the immune system, as well as clinical studies in IBD (mainly UC), and potential biomarkers for adsorptive GMA. Expert opinion: In UC, adsorptive GMA with Adacolumn (Adacolumn®, JIMRO Co., Ltd. Takasaki, Gunma, Japan) selectively depletes elevated myeloid lineage leukocytes and has a range of beneficial secondary immune effects. Adsorptive GMA is a safe and effective non-pharmacological treatment option for UC. Pilot studies have reported promising results for adsorptive GMA in combination with biological agents, although larger studies are required. Fecal calprotectin concentrations, neutrophil counts in histological samples and/or the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood may prove to be useful biomarkers for predicting GMA effectiveness in the future.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35833363/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/epub/10.1080/17474124.2022.2100759?needAccess=true

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An Update on Current Pharmacotherapeutic Options for the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

Francesca Ferretti 1Rosanna Cannatelli 1Maria Camilla Monico 1Giovanni Maconi 1Sandro Ardizzone 

J Clin Med  2022 Apr 20;11(9):2302. doi: 10.3390/jcm11092302.

The main goals of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) treatment are to both induce and maintain the clinical and endoscopic remission of disease, reduce the incidence of complications such as dysplasia and colorectal carcinoma and improve quality of life. Although a curative medical treatment for UC has not yet been found, new therapeutic strategies addressing specific pathogenetic mechanisms of disease are emerging. Notwithstanding these novel therapies, non-biological conventional drugs remain a mainstay of treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize current therapeutic strategies used as treatment for ulcerative colitis and to briefly focus on emerging therapeutic strategies, including novel biologic therapies and small molecules. To date, multiple therapeutic approaches can be adopted in UC and the range of available compounds is constantly increasing. In this era, the realization of well-designed comparative clinical trials, as well as the definition of specific therapeutic models, would be strongly suggested in order to achieve personalized management for UC patients. They also presented other non-Pharmacological Therapies for UC including probiotics, cytapheresis and fecal transplantation.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35566428/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9104748/

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Induction of mucosal healing by intensive granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) without use of corticosteroids in patients with ulcerative colitis: long-term remission maintenance after induction by GMA and efficacy of GMA re-treatment upon relapse

Takumi Fukuchi Kousaku Kawashima Hideaki Koga Ran UtsunomiyaKohei Sugiyama Keiji Shimazu Takaaki Eguchi Shunji Ishihara J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2022 Mar;70(2):197-204. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.21-112. Epub 2021 Dec 25.

This study examined the long-term maintenance rate after inducing remission by intensive granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) without use of corticosteroids (CS) and GMA re-treatment efficacy in the same patients upon relapse with ulcerative colitis. Patients who achieved clinical remission and mucosal healing (MH) by first-time intensive GMA (first GMA) without CS were enrolled. The cumulative non-relapse survival rate up to week 156 was calculated. Patients with relapse during the maintenance period underwent second-time intensive GMA (second GMA) without CS. Clinical remission and MH rates following second GMA were compared to those following first GMA in the same patients. Of the 84 patients enrolled, 78 were followed until week 156 and 34 demonstrated relapse. The cumulative non-relapse survival rate by week 156 was 56.4%. Clinical remission and MH rates after second GMA did not differ from those after first GMA in the same patients (week 6: clinical remission, 100% vs 88.4%, p = 0.134; MH, 100% vs 84.8%, p = 0.074). In conclusion, MH induction by intensive GMA without use of CS in ulcerative colitis patients contributes to subsequent long-term clinical remission maintenance. GMA re-treatment efficacy was comparable to that of first GMA in the same patients who had relapse.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35400813/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8921725/

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Efficacy of cytapheresis for induction therapy and extra-intestinal skin manifestations of ulcerative colitis

Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Osamu Nomura,Kei Nomura,Mayuko Haraikawa,Keiichi Haga,Dai Ishikawa,Taro Osada,Ken Yamaji,Shigaku Ikeda,Akihito Nagahara

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Mar 5. doi: 10.1111/1744-9987.13823. Online ahead of print.

Introduction: In recent years, the prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases has been increasing in Japan due to the westernization of lifestyles. Many patients have been reported to have extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) at least once. Skin lesions occur with a high degree of frequency among EIMs, with erythema nodosum (EN) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) the main complications. Cytapheresis is again attracting attention as a treatment with few side effects. Methods: We investigated the therapeutic effect of cytapheresis on ulcerative colitis (UC) and cutaneous EIMs. Between 2008 and 2021, 240 patients with active UC had induction therapy by cytapheresis at our hospital. Results: Remission and response rates were 50.0% and 67.5%, respectively. Apheresis was performed on seven patients with PG and five patients with EN with a good response. Serious adverse events were not observed. Conclusion: This retrospective assessment of efficacy showed that EN and PG responded favorably to cytapheresis.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35247233/

Scientific corner

Granulocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis (in Spanish)

Gerardo Prieto Bozano an. pedatr. contin.2012;10(5):286-9

  • Existen 2 dispositivos de granulocitoféresis: Cellsorba® (fibras de poliéster no tejidas), que fija granulocitos y linfocitos, y Adacolumn® (acetato de celulosa) que fija selectivamente granulocitos y monocitos.
  • Además de retirar leucocitos activados, la aféresis produce incremento del número de granulocitos CD10-negativos (inmaduros), disminución de citocinas proinflamatorias (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa [TNF-α], interleucina [IL-6],IL-8 e IL-1β) e incremento de citocinas inhibitorias (IL-1, IL-10)
  • La granulocitoféresis es un método razonablemente eficaz y seguro para obtener la remisión en niños con colitis ulcerosa corticodependiente o resistente, sobre todo en pacientes en el primer episodio, en enfermedad de corta evolución y en aquellos que no han recibido esteroides
  • El procedimiento requiere 2 accesos venosos de buen flujo. La pauta más habitual de tratamiento consiste en 1–2 sesiones semanales de 60min a un flujo de 30ml/min, hasta un total de 5–10 sesiones

https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-anales-pediatria-continuada-51-articulo-granulocitoferesis-colitis-ulcerosa-S1696281812701002

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Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comprehensive Review

Zhaobei Cai 1 2Shu Wang 3Jiannan Li 1 Front Med (Lausanne)  2021 Dec 20;8:765474. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.765474. eCollection 2021.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as a global disease, has attracted much research interest. Constant research has led to a better understanding of the disease condition and further promoted its management. We here reviewed the conventional and the novel drugs and therapies, as well as the potential ones, which have shown promise in preclinical studies and are likely to be effective future therapies. The conventional treatments aim at controlling symptoms through pharmacotherapy, including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, with other general measures and/or surgical resection if necessary. However, a considerable fraction of patients do not respond to available treatments or lose response, which calls for new therapeutic strategies. Diverse therapeutic options are emerging, involving small molecules, apheresis therapy, improved intestinal microecology, cell therapy, and exosome therapy. In addition, patient education partly upgrades the efficacy of IBD treatment. Recent advances in the management of IBD have led to a paradigm shift in the treatment goals, from targeting symptom-free daily life to shooting for mucosal healing. In this review, the latest progress in IBD treatment is summarized to understand the advantages, pitfalls, and research prospects of different drugs and therapies and to provide a basis for the clinical decision and further research of IBD.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34988090/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8720971/

combination / gma / gma / gma / gma / IBD / IBD / IBD / MOA / steoids / treament /

Scientific corner

Combination Therapy With Ustekinumab Plus Intensive Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in Patients With Refractory Ulcerative Colitis

Satoshi Tanidaa, b, Keiji Ozekia, Takuya Kannoa, Takahito Katanoa, Naomi Sugimuraa, Hirotada Nishiea, Hiroyasu Iwasakia, Mamoru Tanakaa, Takaya Shimuraa, Eiji Kubotaa, Hiromi Kataokaa, J Clin Med Res. 2021;13(10-11):510-514.

In conclusions, combination therapy with UST plus inten-sive GMA is helpful to ameliorate UC inflammation and clini-cally to reduce disease activities in refractory UC patients, and appears well tolerated.

https://www.jocmr.org/index.php/JOCMR/article/view/4625/25893489

Scientific corner

Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Neutrophil–Lymphocyte Ratio: A Systematic Scoping Review

Blake O. Langley 1,Sara E. Guedry 1,Joshua Z. Goldenberg 1,Douglas A. Hanes 1,Jennifer A. Beardsley 2 andJennifer Joan Ryan 1,

The findings of this systematic scoping review highlight the potential utility of NLR as an adjunctive IBD biomarker with broad applications, including differentiation from non-IBD controls, clinical and endoscopic disease activity differentiation, prediction of loss of response to treatment, and prediction of risk of complications. NLR has promise for guiding therapeutic decision making, specifically for predicting loss of response to IFX. In conclusion, NLR is an emerging IBD biomarker with potential utility at nearly every point in IBD management. As a potential IBD biomarker, NLR is particularly advantageous given that it is minimally invasive, economical, and accessible as it is easily calculated from blood count data routinely and serially monitored in patients with IBD. Additional research is justified to better understand if routine observation of NLR in research and clinical practice could beneficially impact the care of patients with IBD.

https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/10/18/4219/htm

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The New Molecules Are Changing the Course of Pediatric Chronically Active Ulcerative Colitis: A Series of Pediatric Cases

Rafael Martín-Masot, MD, *Pilar Ortiz Pérez, MD, *Encarnación Torcuato Rubio, MD,
*Javier Blasco Alonso, PhD, *Marta Herrador López, †Carmen Gallego Fernández, PhD,
and *Víctor Manuel Navas-López, PhD, DOI: 10.1097/PG9.0000000000000100

Chronically active ulcerative colitis (UC) constitutes a challenge in an era where medical therapeutic options have increased while experience with colectomies has decreased. The change in the therapeutic paradigm of the disease means that patients with chronically active UC are being managed waiting to find their therapeutic target. We present 2 cases of children with chronically active UC who did not respond to intravenous steroids nor sequential therapy. A response was obtained with ustekinumab and tofacitinib, 2 drugs widely used in adults but still with little evidence in children. Highlighting the important role of patients and their families helped decision making, facilitating the work of the medical team. With multidisciplinary
management and close follow-up, they have been able to avoid surgery entering complete clinical remission.

https://journals.lww.com/jpgnr/fulltext/2021/08000/the_new_molecules_are_changing_the_course_of.25.aspx

Scientific corner

Complete Resolution of Mucosal Neutrophils Associates With Improved Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis

Rish K Pai 1Douglas J Hartman 2Claudia Ramos Rivers 3Miguel Regueiro 4Marc Schwartz 3David G Binion 3Reetesh K Pai Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Oct;18(11):2510-2517.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.12.011. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Background & aims: We investigated correlations between histologic features of the colonic mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and clinical outcomes during a 3-year follow-up period. Methods: We obtained baseline biopsies from all colorectal segments (n = 889) from 281 patients with UC enrolled in a prospective study at a single center from 2009 through 2013. Biopsies were assessed in a blinded manner using validated histologic scoring systems (the Geboes score, Nancy histopathologic index, and Robarts histopathologic index). Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic data were collected and tested for correlations with systemic corticosteroid use, hospitalization, and colectomy within 3 years of the index colonoscopy. Results: We found histologic evidence of UC activity (Geboes score ≥ 2B.1) in biopsies from 182 patients (65%) and endoscopic evidence of UC activity in 149 patients (53%) (substantial agreement, κ = 0.60). Histologic features of UC activity were associated with increased rates of systemic corticosteroid use, colectomy, and hospitalization in the entire cohort (P < .05 for all) and associated with increased rates of systemic corticosteroid use in an analysis limited to patients in endoscopic remission (P < .001). In patients in endoscopic remission, only histologic activity was independently associated with use of systemic corticosteroids (multivariate odds ratio, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.20-18.28; P = .001). Similar results were seen when the entire cohort was analyzed. Compared with patients without histologic evidence of UC activity, patients with only a small number of mucosal neutrophils still had higher rates of systemic corticosteroid use (P < .001). Conclusions: Histologic evidence of UC activity, including small numbers of neutrophils in the colonic mucosa, is the only factor independently associated with use of systemic corticosteroids. Complete resolution of neutrophil-associated inflammation should be a target for treatment of UC.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31843598/

https://www.cghjournal.org/article/S1542-3565(19)31438-7/fulltext

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