Changes in Treatment with Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis from the Past to Future in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
GMA decreases inflammatory cytokines and upregulates regulatory T cells. Intensive GMA is significantly more effective than weekly GMA in patients with IBD. The frequency of GMA sessions per week positively correlates with treatment effects. GMA can be safely used in pregnant women and children because of its low adverse event rates. Maintenance therapy and rescue therapy for loss of response of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibodies are effective. Optimal patients who responded to combination therapy with infliximab and GMA showed aggravation characteristics against infliximab treatment at week 4. Key Message: Prospective randomized blinded studies using a sham column should be performed for the loss of response against anti-TNF-α antibodies.
Therapeutic Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis (GMA) for Treatment Refractory Sarcoidosis: A Pilot Study of Clinical Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Action.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic, inflammatory disorder, which in a proportion of patients runs a chronic progressive course despite immunosuppressive treatment. Therapeutic granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has been shown to be an effective treatment option for other systemic inflammatory disorders, but has not yet been investigated in sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to GMA in sarcoidosis. Seven patients with sarcoidosis refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy received 10 GMA sessions. All patients underwent chest X-ray, spirometry, a Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ-SAS), blood tests and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) before treatment and at 2-4 weeks and 3 months (except bronchoscopy) after the last treatment session. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell differential counts were recorded and T cells from blood and BALF were analysed for markers of activity, differentiation and T regulatory function. Compared to baseline, five of seven patients reported an improvement in dyspnoea score. In BALF there was an increase in the percentage of macrophages and a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells. Furthermore, the decrease in BALF CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells correlated significantly with an improvement in dyspnoea score. In peripheral blood there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /CD27(-) T cells and a trend towards an initial increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells, followed by a statistically significant decrease. The effects of GMA on regulatory T cells are consistent with those observed in other inflammatory disorders and could potentially translate into a clinical benefit.
Selective granulocyte and monocyte apheresis as a non-pharmacological option for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the two most prevalent inflammatory bowel diseases. In both cases, the medically refractory and steroid-dependent type presents a therapeutic challenge. To help resolve this problem, a mainly Japanese team developed a new therapeutic option. There are two systems, both of which are able to selectively remove the main mediators of the disease, namely the activated pro-inflammatory cytokine-producing granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, from the patient’s blood circulation (GMA = granulocyte monocyte apheresis). One of the two systems is the Adacolumn( (®) ) (Immunoresearch Laboratories, Takasaki, Japan) consisting of the ADA-monitor and a single-use column, which contains approximately 35,000 cellulose acetate beads. The exact mode of action is not yet sufficiently understood, but however, a modulation of the immune system takes place. As a result, less pro-inflammatory cytokines are released. Furthermore, the production of anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is increased, and the apoptosis of granulocytes boosted. The decreased LECAM-1-expression on leukocytes impedes the leukotaxis to the inflamed tissue, and CD10-negative immature granulocytes appear in the peripheral blood. Another effect to be mentioned is the removal of the peripheral dendritic cells and the leachate of regulatory T cells (T-regs). The second system is the Cellsorba( (®) ) FX Filter (Asahi Medical, Tokyo, Japan). The range of efficiency, the indication, and the procedure are very similar to the Adacolumn. Solely the additional removal of lymphocytes can possibly limit the implementation since lymphopenia can increase the risk of autoimmune disease. Both systems provide a low-risk therapy with few adverse reactions. ASFA recommendations for GMA in inflammatory bowel disease are 2B due to the fact that not enough randomized double-blind studies are available to proof the efficacy of this treatment.
The expression profile of functional regulatory T cells, CD4+CD25high+/forkhead box protein P3+, in patients with ulcerative colitis during active and quiescent disease
K Kamikozuru 1, K Fukunaga, S Hirota, N Hida, Y Ohda, K Yoshida, Y Yokoyama, K Tozawa, K Kawa, M Iimuro, K Nagase, A R Saniabadi, S Nakamura, H Miwa, T Matsumoto Clin Exp Immunol 2009 May;156(2):320-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.03904.x. Epub 2009 Mar 9.
Regulatory T cells (T(reg)) have an essential role in maintaining immune tolerance in the gut. The functional CD4(+) T(reg) express the transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) or a CD25(high) in humans. Further, depletion of elevated granulocytes/monocytes by extracorporeal adsorption (GMA) induces immunomodulation in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the impact of GMA on T(reg). Thirty-one UC patients, clinical activity index (CAI) 12.1 +/- 2.97, refractory to conventional medications including intravenous corticosteroid and 13 healthy controls (HC), were included. Patients received five GMA sessions over 5 weeks. Biopsies from the rectal mucosa and blood samples at baseline and post-GMA were immunostained with anti-CD4/FoxP3 and anti-CD4/CD25 antibodies for immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Following GMA, 22 of 31 patients achieved remission (CAI <or= 4, P < 0.01) and their endoscopic activity index decreased from 10.6 +/- 2.32 to 4.75 +/- 1.48 (P = 0.003). The circulating CD4(+)CD25(high+) T(reg) level was low and increased markedly in responders (P < 0.02). In the nine non-responders, the baseline CD4(+)CD25(high+) T(reg) level was about 50% of the level in the responders (P < 0.03) or in the HC (P < 0.01), and all nine had to undergo colectomy. Conversely, the number of CD4(+)/FoxP3(+) mucosal T(reg) in GMA responders decreased significantly after the fifth GMA session compared with the baseline level (P < 0.05). It is believed that the CD4(+) T(reg) has an essential role in the control of immune pathology in UC patients and a net influx of these cells from the circulation into the mucosa may proceed to suppress inflammation. GMA can impact the circulating as well as the mucosal levels of T(reg).
Regulatory T cells in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases treated with adacolumn granulocytapheresis
The clinical efficacy of GMA on IBD and related extra intestinal manifestations was associated with an expansion of circulating CD4+ CD25+ Tregs and higher expression of FoxP3 in CD4+ T cells. Accordingly, an elevated CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3 may be a valuable index of remission in patients with IBD and other chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory conditions during treatment with GMA.
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