Iizuka M, Etou T, Sagara S. World J Gastroenterol 2022; 28(34): 4959-4972 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i34.4959
Efficacy of cytapheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis showing insufficient or lost response to biologic therapy
For the optimal management of refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), secondary loss of response (LOR) and primary non-response to biologics is a critical issue. This article aimed to summarize the current literature on the use of cytapheresis (CAP) in patients with UC showing a poor response or LOR to biologics and discuss its advantages and limitations. Further, we summarized the efficacy of CAP in patients with UC showing insufficient response to thiopurines or immunomodulators (IM). Eight studies evaluated the efficacy of CAP in patients with UC with inadequate responses to thiopurines or IM. There were no significant differences in the rate of remission and steroid-free remission between patients exposed or not exposed to thiopurines or IM. Three studies evaluated the efficacy of CAP in patients with UC showing an insufficient response to biologic therapies. Mean remission rates of biologics exposed or unexposed patients were 29.4 % and 44.2%, respectively. Fourteen studies evaluated the efficacy of CAP in combination with biologics in patients with inflammatory bowel disease showing a poor response or LOR to biologics. The rates of remission/response and steroid-free remission in patients with UC ranged 32%-69% (mean: 48.0%, median: 42.9%) and 9%-75% (mean: 40.7%, median: 38%), respectively. CAP had the same effectiveness for remission induction with or without prior failure on thiopurines or IM but showed little benefit in patients with UC refractory to biologics. Although heterogeneity existed in the efficacy of the combination therapy with CAP and biologics, these combination therapies induced clinical remission/response and steroid-free remission in more than 40% of patients with UC refractory to biologics on average. Given the excellent safety profile of CAP, this combination therapy can be an alternative therapeutic strategy for UC refractory to biologics. Extensive prospective studies are needed to understand the efficacy of combination therapy with CAP and biologics.
An Update on Current Pharmacotherapeutic Options for the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis
The main goals of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) treatment are to both induce and maintain the clinical and endoscopic remission of disease, reduce the incidence of complications such as dysplasia and colorectal carcinoma and improve quality of life. Although a curative medical treatment for UC has not yet been found, new therapeutic strategies addressing specific pathogenetic mechanisms of disease are emerging. Notwithstanding these novel therapies, non-biological conventional drugs remain a mainstay of treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize current therapeutic strategies used as treatment for ulcerative colitis and to briefly focus on emerging therapeutic strategies, including novel biologic therapies and small molecules. To date, multiple therapeutic approaches can be adopted in UC and the range of available compounds is constantly increasing. In this era, the realization of well-designed comparative clinical trials, as well as the definition of specific therapeutic models, would be strongly suggested in order to achieve personalized management for UC patients. They also presented other non-Pharmacological Therapies for UC including probiotics, cytapheresis and fecal transplantation.
Therapeutic effect of intensive granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis combined with thiopurines for steroid- and biologics-naive Japanese patients with early-diagnosed Crohn’s disease.
Takumi Fukuchi, Hiroshi Nakase 1, Satoshi Ubukata, Minoru Matsuura, Takuya Yoshino, Takahiko Toyonaga, Keiji Shimazu, Hideaki Koga, Hiroshi Yamashita, Dai Ito, Kiyoshi Ashida, BMC Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul 11;13:124.
Combination therapy with intensive GMAA and thiopurines administration rapidly induced high remission in patients with active early-diagnosed CD without serious adverse effect. Mucosal healing was observed in 50.0% of enrolled patients. This combination therapy might be a rational option for patients with early-diagnosed CD.
Granulocyte, macrophage, monocyte apheresis for refractory ulcerative proctitis
Refractory ulcerative colitis that fails conventional intense medical treatment often leads to colectomy. Although ciclosporin and infliximab may avert colectomy in certain cases, these treatments come with substantial toxicity and may only act as a bridge to avert emergency surgery. Granulocyte monocyte/macrophage adsorption apheresis is a new treatment and has shown efficacy for refractory colitis in up to 80% of cases in a Japanese study and is apparently only associated with negligible side effects. We report a case of severe refractory proctitis destined for colectomy effectively treated with granulocyte monocyte/macrophage adsorption apheresis. After two of five sessions the patient achieved full clinical remission, which has been sustained with the addition of azathioprine for more than 1 year.
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