UEG WEEK VIRTUAL 2021
Cellular immune response triggered by granulocytoapheresis in ulcerative colitis patients under biological treatment
GMA induces specific immunoregulatory changes in leukocyte’s subpopulations. We confirm the depletion of the
monocytes with proinflammatory phenotype after GMA. Treg and B effector cells shift to a more immunotolerant phenotype. The emergence of subpopulations with the atypical immunofluorescence staining (CXCR3+CRTH2+) related to immature T cells support the immunomodulatory effects of GMA. These findings could help to understand the pathology of UC and to identify targeted immune subpopulations for treatment
Recommendations for Therapeutic Apheresis by the Section “Preparative and Therapeutic Hemapheresis” of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology
The section “Preparative and Therapeutic Hemapheresis” of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI) has reviewed the actual literature and updated techniques and indications for evidence-based use of therapeutic apheresis in human disease. The recommendations are mostly in line with the “Guidelines on the Use of Therapeutic Apheresis in Clinical Practice” published by the Writing Committee of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) and have been conducted by experts from the DACH (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) region.
Therapeutic Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis (GMA) for Treatment Refractory Sarcoidosis: A Pilot Study of Clinical Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Action.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic, inflammatory disorder, which in a proportion of patients runs a chronic progressive course despite immunosuppressive treatment. Therapeutic granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has been shown to be an effective treatment option for other systemic inflammatory disorders, but has not yet been investigated in sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to GMA in sarcoidosis. Seven patients with sarcoidosis refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy received 10 GMA sessions. All patients underwent chest X-ray, spirometry, a Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ-SAS), blood tests and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) before treatment and at 2-4 weeks and 3 months (except bronchoscopy) after the last treatment session. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell differential counts were recorded and T cells from blood and BALF were analysed for markers of activity, differentiation and T regulatory function. Compared to baseline, five of seven patients reported an improvement in dyspnoea score. In BALF there was an increase in the percentage of macrophages and a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells. Furthermore, the decrease in BALF CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells correlated significantly with an improvement in dyspnoea score. In peripheral blood there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /CD27(-) T cells and a trend towards an initial increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells, followed by a statistically significant decrease. The effects of GMA on regulatory T cells are consistent with those observed in other inflammatory disorders and could potentially translate into a clinical benefit.
Comparison of the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage adsorptive apheresis and leukocytapheresis in active ulcerative colitis patients: a prospective randomized study
Yasuhisa Sakata 1, Ryuichi Iwakiri, Sadahiro Amemori, Kanako Yamaguchi, Takehiro Fujise, Hibiki Otani, Ryo Shimoda, Seiji Tsunada, Hiroyuki Sakata, Yuji Ikeda, Takashi Ando, Yuji Nakafusa, Kazuma Fujimoto
Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease associated with recurring inflammation of the colorectal mucosa. Recently, cytapheresis has emerged as a new treatment for patients with UC. Removal methods are mainly performed with beads [granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage adsorptive apheresis (GMCAP)] or filters [leukocytapheresis (LCAP)]. Both treatments have been reported to be effective for active UC. There have been few trials, however, comparing the efficacy of GMCAP and LCAP. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of LCAP and GMCAP for the treatment of active UC. Methods: Thirty-nine patients [18 male, 21 female; mean age 38.7 years; duration of disease 6 years; clinical activity index (CAI) >6 points] with moderate-to-severe active UC were randomly assigned to the LCAP (n=21) or GMCAP group (n=17). Adacolumn (cellulose acetate beads; Japan Immunoresearch Laboratories, Takasaki, Japan) for GMCAP and Cellsorba EX (polyethylene phthalate fibers; Asahi Medical Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) for LCAP were used for leukocyte removal. Patients received two sessions of cytapheresis in the first week, followed by four weekly administrations. Steroid doses were tapered if patients achieved clinical improvement. When the CAI score had decreased by 5 points or more, the patient was considered to have improved. Results: Thirteen patients in the GMCAP group and 14 in the LCAP group achieved clinical improvement. No significant difference was found in clinical response and clinical course between LCAP and GMCAP. Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased immediately after one session of cytapheresis in the LCAP group. No severe adverse effects were observed in any of the patients. No significant differences were observed in any clinical parameters predictive of a response to either LCAP or GMCAP. But in all patients receiving cytapheresis, a high CAI score was a significant risk factor for treatment failure. All of the cytapheresis nonresponders had CAI scores >or=16. Conclusion: Both GMCAP and LCAP were effective treatments for active UC. Patients with severe UC and a high CAI score were, however, refractory to treatment.
Reduction of Dendritic Cells by Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis
The influence of the granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMCAP) on cell populations participating in mechanisms of tolerance, e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), is still not very clear. In a first step, we aimed to investigate changes in the DC population of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 13) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9). In a second step, we studied the changes in peripheral DCs in a small group of patients with active UC before and after Adacolumn apheresis (n = 7). For this purpose, plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs and their maturation markers CD40, CD80, and CD86 were measured using four-color flow cytometry in the peripheral blood. After apheresis, and in acute flare-ups, we identified a significantly lower number of lymphocytes, plasmacytoid, and myeloid DCs. In conclusion, the additional removal of peripheral DCs by GMCAP, which otherwise would contribute to the inflammatory process in the gut, may lead to a higher tolerogeneic status towards luminal antigens.
Granulocyte Apheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Possible Mechanisms of Effect
We have studied the effects of granulocyte apheresis in 18 patients with ulcerative colitis and 6 with Crohn’s disease who had failed to respond to conventional therapy. Patients were treated with weekly apheresis using a granulocyte removal column. We found a mean reduction in circulating granulocytes of 1.29 × 109 cells/L with no significant alterations in red blood cell monocyte, total lymphocyte, absolute T-helper, or T-cytotoxic lymphocyte counts. There were no significant changes in complement levels or immunoglobulin subclasses. There was a signifycant increase in granulocyte adhesion and a reduction in L-selectin expression. The removal of granulocytes is unlikely to explain the effect of granulocytapheresis. The markedly increased expression of αm integrin/Mac-1 and low L-selectin expression alter the capability of granulocytes to migrate to sites of inflammation and may be responsible for the improvement observed in patients treated with granulocyte apheresis.
Demonstration of low-regulatory CD25High+CD4+ and high-pro-inflammatory CD28-CD4+ T-Cell subsets in patients with ulcerative colitis: modified by selective granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis
Yoko Yokoyama 1, Ken Fukunaga, Yoshihiro Fukuda, Katsuyuki Tozawa, Koji Kamikozuru, Kunio Ohnishi, Takeshi Kusaka, Tadashi Kosaka, Nobuyuki Hida, Yoshio Ohda, Hiroto Miwa, Takayuki Matsumoto Dig Dis Sci 2007 Oct;52(10):2725-31. doi: 10.1007/s10620-006-9560-z. Epub 2007 Apr 3.
Low-CD25(High+)CD4(+), a subset of regulatory CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells and high-inflammatory CD28(-)CD4(+) T cells can exacerbate ulcerative colitis (UC). This study sought to investigate the frequency of CD25(High+)CD4(+) and CD28(-)CD4(+) T cells in patients with UC and the changes in these cells during Adacolumn granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA). Subjects were 12 patients with active UC, 11 with quiescent UC, and 14 healthy volunteers (HVs). The mean clinical activity index was 15.7 +/- 2.2 in active UC and 4.5 +/- 1.1 in quiescent UC. Peripheral blood samples were stained with CD4, CD25, and CD28 antibodies for flow cytometry. Patients with active UC received GMA and blood samples were examined before and after the first GMA session. Patients with active UC (P < 0.04) or quiescent UC (P < 0.02) had a higher percentage of CD28(-)D4(+)T cells compared with HVs, while the percentage of CD28(+)CD4(+) T cells was lower in both UC groups compared with HVs (P = 0.03 and P < 0.02). Patients with active UC had a lower percentage of CD25(High+)CD4(+)T cells compared with quiescent UC patients (P < 0.001). A significant increase in CD25(High+)CD4(+) T cells was associated with GMA (P < 0.03). Low CD25(High+)CD4(+) and high CD28(-)CD4(+) are prominent features in UC. The increase in CD25(High+)CD4(+) T cells induced by GMA should contribute to improved immune function. Additional studies are warranted, since a low frequency of CD25(High+)CD4(+) (-) and a high frequency of CD28(-)CD4(+) (-) expressing T cells might be a predictor of clinical response to GMA.
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