Gerardo Prieto Bozano an. pedatr. contin.2012;10(5):286-9
Granulocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis (in Spanish)
- Existen 2 dispositivos de granulocitoféresis: Cellsorba® (fibras de poliéster no tejidas), que fija granulocitos y linfocitos, y Adacolumn® (acetato de celulosa) que fija selectivamente granulocitos y monocitos.
- Además de retirar leucocitos activados, la aféresis produce incremento del número de granulocitos CD10-negativos (inmaduros), disminución de citocinas proinflamatorias (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa [TNF-α], interleucina [IL-6],IL-8 e IL-1β) e incremento de citocinas inhibitorias (IL-1, IL-10)
- La granulocitoféresis es un método razonablemente eficaz y seguro para obtener la remisión en niños con colitis ulcerosa corticodependiente o resistente, sobre todo en pacientes en el primer episodio, en enfermedad de corta evolución y en aquellos que no han recibido esteroides
- El procedimiento requiere 2 accesos venosos de buen flujo. La pauta más habitual de tratamiento consiste en 1–2 sesiones semanales de 60min a un flujo de 30ml/min, hasta un total de 5–10 sesiones
Cytapheresis re-induces high-rate steroid-free remission in patients with steroid-dependent and steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis
Masahiro Iizuka, Takeshi Etou , Yosuke Shimodaira , Takashi Hatakeyama , Shiho Sagara,World J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 28;27(12):1194-1212.
Our results suggest that CAP effectively induces and maintains steroid-free remission in refractory UC and re-induces steroid-free remission in patients achieving steroid-free remission after the first course of CAP.
Apheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Evidence
Daniel Vasile Balaban and Mariana Jinga Crohn’s Disease Recent Advances book, October 15th, 2020 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93605
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have become a major focus for gastroenterologists worldwide, with the increasing incidence and complexity of cases, which pose therapeutic challenges. Currently available approaches fail in controlling the disease activity in a significant proportion of patients and some of the therapies are associated with significant adverse events. Although new molecules are on the horizon and treatment strategies have been optimized, novel therapeutic tools are much needed in IBD for patients who fail to attain control of the disease. Apheresis is now a common non-pharmacological therapeutic modality used in several pathologies, IBD also. In the current review, we summarize currently available evidence with respect to selective apheresis in IBD.
Cytapheresis for pyoderma gangrenosum associated with inflammatory bowel disease: A review of current status
Kentaro Tominaga, Kenya Kamimura, Hiroki Sato, Masayoshi Ko, Yuzo Kawata, Takeshi Mizusawa, Junji Yokoyama, and Shuji Terai, World J Clin Cases. 2020 Jun 6; 8(11): 2092–2101.
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis clinically characterized by the presence of painful skin ulcerations with erythematous. As it is frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis, gastroenterologists should be familiar with the disease including therapeutic options. Pyoderma gangrenosum is one of the neutrophilic dermatoses often complicated with ulcerative colitis. The corticosteroid and other immune modulator have been used for the treatment, however, as its disease mechanism has not been clarified, there is no additional option for those who showed poor response and refractory to the conventional therapies. Therefore, we have conducted a review focusing on the cytapheresis for PG in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. A literature search was conducted to extract studies published in the last 20 years, with information on demographics, clinical symptoms, treatment, and the clinical course from a total of 22 cases reported and our recent case. In most patients, cytapheresis was associated with improvement or resolution of PG after failure of conventional therapeutic options such as corticosteroids, antibiotics, immunosuppressive agents and immunoglobulin. Based on the recent reports, we have summarized the clinical course of 23 cases and efficacy of cytapheresis..Cytapheresis is helpful in the majority of patients with PG refractory to medical treatment associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and could be further studied in a multicenter, randomized trial.
SY4-03 The efficacy of combination therapy of intensive GMA with biologics or a JAK inhibitor for refractory inflammatory bowel disease
poster at ISFA 2019 pag 56
Background and Aim: A monotherapy with intensive GMA, biologics or a JAK inhibitor are limited in patients with intractable Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). We retrospectively evaluated the 10- and 52-week efficacy and safety of combination therapy of intensive GMA with biologics or a JAK inhibitor for intractable UC or CD.
Method: A combination of intensive GMA (2 sessions a week, total 10 times) with tofacitinib (TOF) for active UC was performed and that of intensive GMA with ustekinumab (UST) for active CD was done. Results: Of 6 consecutive UC patients receiving a combination therapy of TOF (20 mg daily for 8 weeks as induction therapy and subsequently 10 mg daily) plus intensive GMA for moderately-to-severely active UC and loss of response to corticosteroids, azathioprine, and/ or biologic therapies, 67% (4 cases) displayed clinical remission according to Mayo score and 100% displayed mucosal healing at 10 weeks. A temporary increase in CPK were seen. Of 5 consecutive CD patients receiving a combination therapy of ustekinumab (every 8 weeks) plus intensive GMA for moderately-to-severely active CD and loss of response to corticosteroids, azathioprine, and/or biologic therapies, 75% displayed cumulative steroid-free clinical remission at 10 weeks and did such remission over 52 weeks under subsequent maintenance monotherapy of UST. The mean CDAI at baseline were 257. Its values at 10 and 52 weeks after the combination therapy with UST plus intensive GMA were 48 and 68, respectively. One case showed mucosal healing at 52 weeks according to SES-CD. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Combination therapy of intensive GMA with biologics or a JAK inhibitor appeared to be effective and safe for refractory UC or CD.
Granulocitoaféresis en 2017. Puesta al día (Spanish)
Enfermedad Inflamatoria Intestinal 20017 (16) 2, 62-69 DOI: 10.1016/j.eii.2016.12.001
Granulocyte apheresis is a procedure that allows the removal of different activated leukocyte populations and it also modifies some circulating inflammatory mediators. These effects, along with its immunomodulatory potential, make it an attractive therapeutic option in inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies with this technique have had significant limitations, but recent data is emerging about the ideal clinical setting in which granulocyte apheresis should be indicated. Most of the evidence supports its use in conditions that are dependent or refractory to corticosteroids, especially when treatments with immunomodulators or biologics has failed and when it is necessary to reduce or avoid the use of systemic corticosteroids. Its excellent safety profile gives it a role in cases of comorbidity or risk in the use of immunosuppressive drugs or in paediatric patients. In this review, we provide an update on the role of granulocyte apheresis in inflammatory bowel disease.
Adsorptive Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis: The First Multicenter Study in China.
Ya-Min Lai 1, Wei-Yan Yao 2, Yao He 3, Xuan Jiang 4, Yu-Bei Gu 2, Min-Hu Chen 3, Yu-Lan Liu 4, Yao-Zong Yuan 2, Jia-Ming Qian 1 , Gut Liver. 2017 Mar 15;11(2):216-225.
The overall efficacy of GMA in patients with active UC who were taking first-line medications or were corticosteroid refractory was encouraging. Additionally, GMA was well tolerated and had a good safety profile.
OC.11.4 LONG TERM EFFICACY OF GRANULOCYTE-MONOCYTE-APHERESIS IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS. THE ITALIAN REGISTRY OF THERAPEUTIC APHERESIS
R. Sacco, V. D’Ovidio, +18 authors G. Bresci Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of Digestive Diseases / Digestive and Liver Disease 46S (2014) S1–S144
Background and aim: Granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis (GMA) is effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, all published studies evaluated a low number of patients, with an overall limited follow-up. This observational study investigates the long-term efficacy of GMA in a large number of patients included in the Italian Registry of Therapeutic Apheresis. Material and methods: Data of patients with mild/moderate UC treated with a standard protocol of GMA (5 sessions in 5 weeks) were evaluated. All patients had failed to respond to mesalamine or sulphasalazine, and were under steroid treatment. Clinical evaluations were performed at 3, 12 and 24 months since the end of GMA session. The following parameters were assessed: incidence of clinical remission (CAI [Colits Active Index] <4); CAI; erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); c-reactive protein (CRP); white cells blood count (WBC). Endoscopical evaluations were performed at a 3- month follow-up: the incidence of endoscopical remission (EAI [endoscopical activity index] 0/1) was assessed. Results: Data for 347 patients (214 males, age 46.3 years; CAI 7.47) were available; 288 patients were either steroid-resistant or steroid-dependent. The proportion of patients with remission of disease was 66% at 3 months, 77% at 12 months and 78% at 24 months. At 24 months, all other efficacy parameters had improved from baseline: CAI (7.47 vs 3.47), ESR (35.87 vs 24.1 mm/h), CRP (4.31 vs 2.75 mg/dl) and WBC (8.61 vs 7.19) (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Endoscopic data were available for 107 patients. The incidence of mucosal healing was 47% and all patients with mucosal healing presented a clinical remission over the entire follow-up period. No major adverse events were reported during GMA sessions. Conclusions: Data collected on a large sample of steroid-resistant or steroidrefractory patients included in the Italian Registry of Therapeutic Apheresis show that GMA is a safe and effective procedure over a long-term follow-up. Mucosal healing appears strongly associated with clinical remission.
Combination therapy with Adalimumab plus intensive granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis induced clinical remission in a Crohn’s disease patient with the loss of response to scheduled Adalimumab maintenance therapy: A case report
Keiji Ozeki 1, Satoshi Tanida, Takashi Mizushima, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Hironobu Tsukamoto, Yoshikazu Hirata, Kenji Murakami, Takaya Shimura, Hiromi Kataoka, Takeshi Kamiya, Takashi Joh, Intern Med. 2012;51(6):595-9.
A 21-year-old Caucasian man with a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease (CD) at the age of 14 was admitted to our hospital due to CD flare-up while under scheduled adalimumab (ADA) maintenance therapy. His symptoms remained virtually unchanged following high dose corticosteroid therapy. Seven days later, combination therapy with ADA plus intensive granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) was initiated, which induced clinical remission. Therefore, combination therapy with ADA plus intensive GMA appears to be an effective therapeutic option for patients with severe CD while under scheduled ADA maintenance therapy.
Selective granulocyte and monocyte apheresis as a non-pharmacological option for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Gerda C Leitner 1, Nina Worel, Harald Vogelsang, Transfus Med Hemother. 2012 Aug;39(4):246-252.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the two most prevalent inflammatory bowel diseases. In both cases, the medically refractory and steroid-dependent type presents a therapeutic challenge. To help resolve this problem, a mainly Japanese team developed a new therapeutic option. There are two systems, both of which are able to selectively remove the main mediators of the disease, namely the activated pro-inflammatory cytokine-producing granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, from the patient’s blood circulation (GMA = granulocyte monocyte apheresis). One of the two systems is the Adacolumn( (®) ) (Immunoresearch Laboratories, Takasaki, Japan) consisting of the ADA-monitor and a single-use column, which contains approximately 35,000 cellulose acetate beads. The exact mode of action is not yet sufficiently understood, but however, a modulation of the immune system takes place. As a result, less pro-inflammatory cytokines are released. Furthermore, the production of anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is increased, and the apoptosis of granulocytes boosted. The decreased LECAM-1-expression on leukocytes impedes the leukotaxis to the inflamed tissue, and CD10-negative immature granulocytes appear in the peripheral blood. Another effect to be mentioned is the removal of the peripheral dendritic cells and the leachate of regulatory T cells (T-regs). The second system is the Cellsorba( (®) ) FX Filter (Asahi Medical, Tokyo, Japan). The range of efficiency, the indication, and the procedure are very similar to the Adacolumn. Solely the additional removal of lymphocytes can possibly limit the implementation since lymphopenia can increase the risk of autoimmune disease. Both systems provide a low-risk therapy with few adverse reactions. ASFA recommendations for GMA in inflammatory bowel disease are 2B due to the fact that not enough randomized double-blind studies are available to proof the efficacy of this treatment.
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