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Induction of mucosal healing by intensive granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) without use of corticosteroids in patients with ulcerative colitis: long-term remission maintenance after induction by GMA and efficacy of GMA re-treatment upon relapse

Takumi Fukuchi Kousaku Kawashima Hideaki Koga Ran UtsunomiyaKohei Sugiyama Keiji Shimazu Takaaki Eguchi Shunji Ishihara J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2022 Mar;70(2):197-204. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.21-112. Epub 2021 Dec 25.

This study examined the long-term maintenance rate after inducing remission by intensive granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) without use of corticosteroids (CS) and GMA re-treatment efficacy in the same patients upon relapse with ulcerative colitis. Patients who achieved clinical remission and mucosal healing (MH) by first-time intensive GMA (first GMA) without CS were enrolled. The cumulative non-relapse survival rate up to week 156 was calculated. Patients with relapse during the maintenance period underwent second-time intensive GMA (second GMA) without CS. Clinical remission and MH rates following second GMA were compared to those following first GMA in the same patients. Of the 84 patients enrolled, 78 were followed until week 156 and 34 demonstrated relapse. The cumulative non-relapse survival rate by week 156 was 56.4%. Clinical remission and MH rates after second GMA did not differ from those after first GMA in the same patients (week 6: clinical remission, 100% vs 88.4%, p = 0.134; MH, 100% vs 84.8%, p = 0.074). In conclusion, MH induction by intensive GMA without use of CS in ulcerative colitis patients contributes to subsequent long-term clinical remission maintenance. GMA re-treatment efficacy was comparable to that of first GMA in the same patients who had relapse.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35400813/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8921725/

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Granulocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis (in Spanish)

Gerardo Prieto Bozano an. pedatr. contin.2012;10(5):286-9

  • Existen 2 dispositivos de granulocitoféresis: Cellsorba® (fibras de poliéster no tejidas), que fija granulocitos y linfocitos, y Adacolumn® (acetato de celulosa) que fija selectivamente granulocitos y monocitos.
  • Además de retirar leucocitos activados, la aféresis produce incremento del número de granulocitos CD10-negativos (inmaduros), disminución de citocinas proinflamatorias (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa [TNF-α], interleucina [IL-6],IL-8 e IL-1β) e incremento de citocinas inhibitorias (IL-1, IL-10)
  • La granulocitoféresis es un método razonablemente eficaz y seguro para obtener la remisión en niños con colitis ulcerosa corticodependiente o resistente, sobre todo en pacientes en el primer episodio, en enfermedad de corta evolución y en aquellos que no han recibido esteroides
  • El procedimiento requiere 2 accesos venosos de buen flujo. La pauta más habitual de tratamiento consiste en 1–2 sesiones semanales de 60min a un flujo de 30ml/min, hasta un total de 5–10 sesiones

https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-anales-pediatria-continuada-51-articulo-granulocitoferesis-colitis-ulcerosa-S1696281812701002

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Cytapheresis re-induces high-rate steroid-free remission in patients with steroid-dependent and steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis

Masahiro IizukaTakeshi Etou Yosuke Shimodaira Takashi Hatakeyama Shiho Sagara,World J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 28;27(12):1194-1212. 

Our results suggest that CAP effectively induces and maintains steroid-free remission in refractory UC and re-induces steroid-free remission in patients achieving steroid-free remission after the first course of CAP.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33828394/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006096/pdf/WJG-27-1194.pdf

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Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis Before Initiation of Steroids in Patients With Active Ulcerative Colitis (EXPECT Study): A Multicenter Prospective Clinical Trial

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Adsorptive Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis Is Effective in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Both with and without Concomitant Prednisolone

Keiji Matsuda 1 2Kohei Ohno 1Yuka Okada 1Takahiro Yagi 1Mitsuo Tsukamoto 1Yoshihisa Fukushima 1Atsushi Horiuchi 1Ryu Shimada 1 2Tsuyoshi Ozawa 1 2Tamuro Hayama 1 2Takeshi Tsuchiya 1 2Junko Tamura 1Hisae Iinuma 1Keijiro Nozawa 1 2Hitoshi Aoyagi 2 3Akari Isono 2 3Koichiro Abe 2 3Shinya Kodashima 2 3Takatsugu Yamamoto 2 3Yoshitaka Kawasaki 4Yoshifuru Tamura 4Yuko Sasajima 5Fukuo Kondo 5Yojiro Hashiguchi 1 2 , Inflamm Intest Dis, 2020 Feb;5(1):36-41.

The effect of GMA with concomitant PSL (Prednisolone) and that of GMA without PSL were not different, and GMA was effective irrespective of PSL administration. The present study showed that GMA had efficacy and led many UC patients treated by PSL to be steroid free with no safety concern in the real world, although there is the possibility of recruitment bias due to the retrospective nature of the study.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32232053/

https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/505484

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Long-term prognosis of patients with ulcerative colitis treated with cytapheresis therapy

Tetsuro Takayama 1Takanaori KanaiKatsuyoshi MatsuokaSusumu OkamotoTomohisa SujinoYohei MikamiTadakazu HisamatsuTomoharu YajimaYasushi IwaoHaruhiko OgataToshifumi Hibi, J Crohns Colitis. 2013 Mar;7(2):e49-54.

Background: Although accumulating studies in Japan show that cytapheresis (CAP) therapy is safe and effective for the induction of remission of moderate or severe ulcerative colitis (UC), the long-term prognosis of UC patients treated with CAP is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prognosis of UC patients treated with CAP. Methods: Ninety patients treated previously with CAP and followed for more than 3 years were evaluated. The rates of operation, readmission, and use or dose-up of corticosteroid were analyzed as long-term prognosis. Results: Following the first course of CAP treatment, 64% of patients showed clinical improvement (> 4-point decrease in the clinical activity index (CAI)), and 49% of patients achieved clinical remission (CAI ≤ 4). Longer disease duration and lower age at the first CAP treatment correlated significantly with the therapeutic effects of CAP (p = 0.003 and 0.035, respectively). The rates of operation and readmission were significantly lower in patients who showed previous clinical effects of CAP than in those who did not respond to CAP. The rates of operation and readmission were also significantly lower in patients whose treatment was combined with immunomodulators after the initiation of CAP than in patients who did not use immunomodulators. Importantly, the second course of CAP was also effective in most of the patients who showed a clinical response to the first CAP. Conclusions: Patients who achieve remission after the first CAP therapy may have a good long-term prognosis and a good response to a second CAP therapy even after relapse.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22633997/

https://academic.oup.com/ecco-jcc/article/7/2/e49/484944?login=false

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Leukocytapheresis for steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis in clinical practice: results of a nationwide Spanish registry

J L Cabriada 1E DomènechN IbargoyenV HernándezJ ClofentD GinardI Gutiérrez-IbarluzeaJ Hinojosa, J Gastroenterol. 2012 Apr;47(4):359-65.

 

Background: Several small, prospective, open studies suggest that leukocytapheresis might be efficient in patients with steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis (UC). Aim: To evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of leukocytapheresis for the management of steroid-dependent UC in clinical practice. Methods: A Web-based, nationwide database specifically designed to record the efficacy and safety data of leukocytapheresis therapy in UC was available from September 2007 in Spain. Clinical data were collected at treatment baseline, 1 month after the last apheresis session (initial efficacy), and 6 and 12 months thereafter (long-term efficacy). Remission was defined as a Mayo Clinic index ≤2 together with complete steroid withdrawal and response as a decrease of ≥3 from the baseline score. Results: A total of 142 steroid-dependent UC patients were included in the registry, most of them treated with the Adacolumn™ system. In 69% of patients thiopurine therapy failed to achieve steroid-free clinical remission. Initial clinical remission was obtained in 37% of cases. The initial corticosteroid dose, the number and frequency of apheresis sessions, or the previous failure of thiopurines and/or infliximab did not influence the initial remission rate, but a greater decrease in CRP levels was associated with a higher probability to obtain initial remission. At 6 and 12 months, 41 and 36% of patients were in clinical remission, respectively. Only one serious adverse effect was recorded. Conclusions: In clinical practice, apheresis allows long-term steroid-free clinical remission in up to one third of steroid-dependent UC patients, even in those with prior failure of thiopurines.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22105230/

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Leucocyte apheresis in the treatment of paediatric ulcerative colitis

Tarja RuuskaMarja-Leena LähdeahoYelda SutasMerja AshornJuhani Grönlund Scand J Gastroenterol 2007 Nov; 42(11):1390-1. doi: 10.1080/00365520701231116.

Recent studies show corticosteroid dependency in 45% of paediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) patients despite using other medicaments, including immunomodulators This patient group is problematic as corticosteroids have numerous side effects when used long term. New biological approaches have proved effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but as the side effects can be severe, especially in young patients, their use is restricted in UC.

In UC, circulating activated granulocytes and macrophages/monocytes are increased and can infiltrate the bowel and cause tissue injury by producing inflammatory cytokines, being thus involved in the initiation and perpetuation of an inflammatory disorder. Periodic removal of activated granulocytes and monocytes/ macrophages with selective leucocyte apheresis (Adacolumn; JIMRO, Japan) is expected to reduce leucocyte-dependent tissue injury. Preliminary reports show promising results in the treatment of IBD, in children with corticosteroid-dependent or -resistant UC.

We design a  pilot study where 11 children (7 corticosteroid-dependent, 3 corticosteroid-resistant and 1 refusing corticosteroids) were treated with apheresis and their data analysed. Treatment was given once a week, a total of 5-9 sessions. 8 out of the remaining 11 patients responded well to the treatment. Corticosteroids could be tapered-off either totally or to minimal doses in all cases. Treatment was well tolerated.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17918012/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00365520701231116?scroll=top&needAccess=true

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Evaluation of 5 versus 10 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions in steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis: A pilot, prospective, multicenter, randomized study

Elena RicartMaria EsteveMontserrat AndreuFrancesc CasellasDavid MonfortMiquel SansNatalia OudovenkoRaúl Lafuente, and Julián Panés World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Apr 21; 13(15): 2193–2197.Published online 2007 Apr 21. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v13.i15.2193

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of 5 compared to 10 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions in patients with active steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis. METHODS: In this pilot, prospective, multicenter randomized trial, 20 patients with moderately active steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis were randomized to 5 or 10 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions. The primary objective was clinical remission at wk 17. Secondary measures included endoscopic remission and steroid consumption. RESULTS: Nine patients were randomized to 5 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions (group 1) and 11 patients to 10 granulocyteaphaeresis sessions (group 2). At wk 17, 37.5% of patients in group 1 and 45.45% of patients in group 2 were in clinical remission. Clinical remission was accompanied by endoscopic remission in all cases. Eighty-six percent of patients achieving remission were steroid-free at wk 17. Daily steroid requirements were significantly lower in group 2. Eighty-nine per cent of patients remained in remission during a one year follow-up. One serious adverse event, not related to the study therapy, was reported. CONCLUSION: Granulocyteaphaeresis is safe and effective for the treatment of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis. In this population, increasing the number of aphaeresis sessions is not associated with higher remission rates, but affords a significant steroid-sparing effect.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146843/

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Leukocytapheresis in Patients with Moderate-Severe Steroid-Dependant Ulcerative Colitis: Clinical Response without Endoscopic Response

Irene Modesto, Daniela Scimeca, Ambrogio Orlando, Mario Cottone, Inflamm Bowel Dis 12 (10), October 2006

We report the results of an open prospective study of LCAP in moderate to severe steroid-dependent UC. LCAP is an effective procedure in obtaining discontinuation of steroids in 36% of patients with UC for at least 3 months. Overall 4 of 11(36%) patients could discontinue steroids within 3 months. No relevant side effects were observed. The procedure was well tolerated. In our series, there was no endoscopic response. Most of the patients obtained a clinical temporary response, but many relapsed

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17012976/

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