Use of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in dermatology (Review)
Exp Ther Med 2022 Jun 24;24(2):536. doi: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463. eCollection 2022 Aug. DOI: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463
Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal treatment that selectively removes activated myeloid lineage leukocytes from peripheral blood. This technique consists of a column with cellulose acetate beads as absorptive leukocytapheresis carriers, and was initially used to treat ulcerative colitis. A literature search was conducted to extract recently published studies about the clinical efficacy of GMA in patients with different skin disorders, reporting information on demographics, clinical symptoms, treatment and clinical course. Dermatological diseases, in which GMA has been performed, include generalized pustular psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, Behcet’s disease, Sweet’s syndrome, adult-onset Still’s disease, impetigo herpetiformis, reactive arthritis, acne and hidradenitis suppurativa syndrome, cutaneous allergic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In most patients, GMA was started after the failure of conventional therapeutic options and it was helpful in the majority of cases. Based on the information summarized, GMA could be considered a valid non-pharmacological treatment option for patients with several dermatological conditions, which are difficult to treat with other pharmacological preparations.
PASH syndrome; cutaneous allergic vasculitis; granulocyte and monocyte apheresis; neutrophilic dermatoses; reactive arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus.
Efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for three cases of refractory pyoderma gangrenosum
Pyoderma gangrenosum presents with chronic skin ulcers and is histologically characterized by neutrophil infiltration throughout the dermis. It is also occasionally associated with ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease, against which granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) has recently shown remarkable efficacy. We performed GCAP on three refractory cases of pyoderma gangrenosum with painful bilateral leg ulcers and hereby report the results obtained. Patient 1 was a 43-year-old woman with a four-year history of recurrent painful skin ulcers treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Patient 2 was a 29-year-old woman who had been suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum with severe pain for two weeks, associated with an 11-year history of ulcerative colitis treated with prednisolone and salazosulfapyridine. Patient 3 was a 63-year-old man with a three-year history of recurrent ulcers with pain, suffering from rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. The sizes of the lesions were reduced in all three patients following a weekly GCAP treatment for 10 or 11 consecutive weeks, and the re-epithelialization of ulcers were additionally observed in two patients. The pain disappeared dramatically in all three patients following two sessions of GCAP therapy. No adverse effects were observed for up to at least eight months after treatment. We therefore considered GCAP as one effective alternative to currently existing therapies, with regards to refractory cases of pyoderma gangrenosum.
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for cutaneous allergic vasculitis
Cutaneous allergic vasculitis (CAV) is characterized clinically by purpuric patches with secondary ulcerations, and histologically by leukocytoclastic vasculitis with neutrophil infiltrates. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) is an extracorporeal apheresis instrument using a column containing cellulose acetate beads designed to remove pathogenic granulocytes. Here we report our assessment of the efficacy of GCAP for recurrent leg ulcers in a 49-year-old woman with CAV. She underwent five GCAP treatments at one-week intervals. In each treatment session, 1800 mL of blood was processed. Her leg ulcers responded well and her white blood cell and neutrophil counts and the expression level of CD11b/CD18, a marker for activated neutrophils, on her peripheral neutrophils were reduced from 7500/microL to 6500/microL, 4350/microL to 3315/microL, and 64.9 MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) to 27.0 MFI (normal controls: 10.5 +/- 1.2 MFI) by GCAP, respectively. These results suggest that GCAP is useful for skin disorders with leucocytoclastic vasculitis.
Treatment of Pyoderma Gangrenosum With Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis
Pyoderma gangrenosum is an intractable skin disorder characterized by the development of erythematous pustules or nodules that rapidly progress to destructive, necrotizing, non-infective ulcers. We assessed the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) therapy in two new patients, a 67-year-old man with ulcerations on his lower leg, and a 44-year-old man with turgid erythematous lesions with burrowing abscesses and sinus formation on his hip, groin, and thighs. Both patients received 10 GCAP treatments at 5-day intervals. Their skin lesions responded well. The 9 cmx6 cm ulcer on the lower right leg of the 67-year-old patient was completely covered by regenerated skin at the completion of therapy. The turgid skin lesions containing pustules and ulcers of the other patient showed amelioration and a marked decrease in the volume of exudate. Our results suggest that GCAP is a useful treatment modality for pyoderma gangrenosum.
Treatment of psoriatic arthritis with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) is a new extracorporeal apheresis treatment modality that removes pathogenic granulocytes. Recently, we found that GCAP is useful for treating pyoderma gangrenosum and pustular psoriasis. We thought that this treatment may also be effective for treating other disorders attributable to activated granulocytes and studied the efficacy of GCAP in 4 patients with psoriatic arthritis. Treatment with GCAP resulted in remarkable clearing of joint pain, suggesting that GCAP is valuable for treating arthritis as well as skin disorders. We present a detailed description of these patients and this novel therapy.
Contact UsFor more informationContact Us