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An Update on Current Pharmacotherapeutic Options for the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

Francesca Ferretti 1Rosanna Cannatelli 1Maria Camilla Monico 1Giovanni Maconi 1Sandro Ardizzone 

J Clin Med  2022 Apr 20;11(9):2302. doi: 10.3390/jcm11092302.

The main goals of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) treatment are to both induce and maintain the clinical and endoscopic remission of disease, reduce the incidence of complications such as dysplasia and colorectal carcinoma and improve quality of life. Although a curative medical treatment for UC has not yet been found, new therapeutic strategies addressing specific pathogenetic mechanisms of disease are emerging. Notwithstanding these novel therapies, non-biological conventional drugs remain a mainstay of treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize current therapeutic strategies used as treatment for ulcerative colitis and to briefly focus on emerging therapeutic strategies, including novel biologic therapies and small molecules. To date, multiple therapeutic approaches can be adopted in UC and the range of available compounds is constantly increasing. In this era, the realization of well-designed comparative clinical trials, as well as the definition of specific therapeutic models, would be strongly suggested in order to achieve personalized management for UC patients. They also presented other non-Pharmacological Therapies for UC including probiotics, cytapheresis and fecal transplantation.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35566428/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9104748/

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Efficacy of cytapheresis for induction therapy and extra-intestinal skin manifestations of ulcerative colitis

Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Osamu Nomura,Kei Nomura,Mayuko Haraikawa,Keiichi Haga,Dai Ishikawa,Taro Osada,Ken Yamaji,Shigaku Ikeda,Akihito Nagahara

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Mar 5. doi: 10.1111/1744-9987.13823. Online ahead of print.

Introduction: In recent years, the prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases has been increasing in Japan due to the westernization of lifestyles. Many patients have been reported to have extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) at least once. Skin lesions occur with a high degree of frequency among EIMs, with erythema nodosum (EN) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) the main complications. Cytapheresis is again attracting attention as a treatment with few side effects. Methods: We investigated the therapeutic effect of cytapheresis on ulcerative colitis (UC) and cutaneous EIMs. Between 2008 and 2021, 240 patients with active UC had induction therapy by cytapheresis at our hospital. Results: Remission and response rates were 50.0% and 67.5%, respectively. Apheresis was performed on seven patients with PG and five patients with EN with a good response. Serious adverse events were not observed. Conclusion: This retrospective assessment of efficacy showed that EN and PG responded favorably to cytapheresis.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35247233/

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Granulocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis (in Spanish)

Gerardo Prieto Bozano an. pedatr. contin.2012;10(5):286-9

  • Existen 2 dispositivos de granulocitoféresis: Cellsorba® (fibras de poliéster no tejidas), que fija granulocitos y linfocitos, y Adacolumn® (acetato de celulosa) que fija selectivamente granulocitos y monocitos.
  • Además de retirar leucocitos activados, la aféresis produce incremento del número de granulocitos CD10-negativos (inmaduros), disminución de citocinas proinflamatorias (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa [TNF-α], interleucina [IL-6],IL-8 e IL-1β) e incremento de citocinas inhibitorias (IL-1, IL-10)
  • La granulocitoféresis es un método razonablemente eficaz y seguro para obtener la remisión en niños con colitis ulcerosa corticodependiente o resistente, sobre todo en pacientes en el primer episodio, en enfermedad de corta evolución y en aquellos que no han recibido esteroides
  • El procedimiento requiere 2 accesos venosos de buen flujo. La pauta más habitual de tratamiento consiste en 1–2 sesiones semanales de 60min a un flujo de 30ml/min, hasta un total de 5–10 sesiones

https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-anales-pediatria-continuada-51-articulo-granulocitoferesis-colitis-ulcerosa-S1696281812701002

Scientific corner

Use of granulocyte/monocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis: A practical review from a European perspective

Eugeni DomènechJoan-Ramon GrífolsAyesha Akbar, and Axel U Dignass World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Mar 14; 27(10): 908–918.

GMA is the only available therapy for UC directly targeting neutrophils. Two controlled, multicentre, European studies and a number of recent cases series found a potential therapeutic benefit of GMA in different clinical scenarios of UC with a still unmet need for optimal treatment. Moreover, GMA has an excellent safety profile and is perceived as a convenient procedure by patients, making this non-pharmacological therapy a suitable alternative or add-on therapy in UC, particularly for frail or comorbid patients.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968132/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968132/pdf/WJG-27-908.pdf

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Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis as an adjunctive therapy to induce and maintain clinical remission in ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta analysis

Szabolcs KissDávid NémethPéter Hegyi Mária Földi Zsolt SzakácsBálint Erőss Benedek Tinusz Péter Jenő HegyiPatrícia Sarlós Hussain Alizadeh, BMJ Open 2021 May 19;11(5):e042374.

The results support the hypothesis that patients with active UC have a better chance of clinical remission if GMA is administered as an adjunctive therapy. As regards the frequency of AEs, we found no statistically significant difference between the two groups. With regard to remission maintenance, GMA was identified as an effective alternative therapeutic option

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34011580/

e042374.full.pdf (bmj.com)

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S-05-05 Efficacy and safety of cytapheresis in elderly patients with ulcerative colitis (poster)

ISFA-EIFA-2021

Remission induction was more challenging in elderly UC patients. However, CAP was safe and effective for remission induction as a non-pharmacological treatment, even in elderly UC patients, after the incorporation of practical measures. Optimized and contrived CAP is still useful as the sole or concomitant treatment.

https://www.eventclass.org/contxt_eisfa2021/online-program/session?s=S-05

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Security of therapeutic apheresis in pediatrics. prospective study during 2018 in 171 apheresis sessions

Víctor López BaezPedro Arango SanchoYolanda Calzada BañosElena Codina SamperaAna Vinuesa JacaLina Hernández ZúñigaÁlvaro Madrid Aris, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Volume 35, Issue Supplement_3

The apheresis techniques in pediatrics had been presented with few complications in our center, none derived from vascular access, anticoagulation, infections or adverse effects due to use of replacement fluid. The training of medical and nursing staff is essential to identify risk situations. The use of protocols and international guidelines ensure safety in pediatrics.

https://academic.oup.com/ndt/article/35/Supplement_3/gfaa140.MO079/5853667

OP-NDTJ_Perlims 1..15 (silverchair.com)

Scientific corner

Safety and efficacy of single-needle leukocyte apheresis for treatment of ulcerative colitis

Yoichiro Shindo 1Keiichi Mitsuyama 2Hiroshi Yamasaki 1 2 3Tetsuro Imai 4Shinichiro Yoshioka 1 2Kotaro Kuwaki 1 2Ryosuke Yamauchi 1 2Tetsuhiro Yoshimura 1 2Toshihiro Araki 1 2Masaru Morita 1 2Kozo Tsuruta 1 2Sayo Yamasaki 1Kei Fukami 5Takuji Torimura, Ther Apher Dial 2020 Oct;24(5):503-510.

Single-needle (SN) apheresis may be safe and effective and may reduce patient burden during UC treatment. Nevertheless, further comparative studies are needed.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32526089/

Scientific corner

Apheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Evidence

Daniel Vasile Balaban and Mariana Jinga Crohn’s Disease Recent Advances book, October 15th, 2020 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93605

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have become a major focus for gastroenterologists worldwide, with the increasing incidence and complexity of cases, which pose therapeutic challenges. Currently available approaches fail in controlling the disease activity in a significant proportion of patients and some of the therapies are associated with significant adverse events. Although new molecules are on the horizon and treatment strategies have been optimized, novel therapeutic tools are much needed in IBD for patients who fail to attain control of the disease. Apheresis is now a common non-pharmacological therapeutic modality used in several pathologies, IBD also. In the current review, we summarize currently available evidence with respect to selective apheresis in IBD.

https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/73330

Scientific corner

Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis: A potentially relevant therapeutic option for COVID-19

Takuro Kanekura 1Koichi Kawahara 2 , Int J Infect Dis 2020 Oct;99:1-2. 

To our knowledge, GMA has a good safety profile; serious adverse effects are rarely reported. Its modes of action together with the findings of this case report support our notion that GMA is a relevant therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19 and warrants an immediate clinical trial to evaluate its full therapeutic efficacy in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32721534/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834290/pdf/main.pdf

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