Use of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in dermatology (Review)
Exp Ther Med 2022 Jun 24;24(2):536. doi: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463. eCollection 2022 Aug. DOI: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463
Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal treatment that selectively removes activated myeloid lineage leukocytes from peripheral blood. This technique consists of a column with cellulose acetate beads as absorptive leukocytapheresis carriers, and was initially used to treat ulcerative colitis. A literature search was conducted to extract recently published studies about the clinical efficacy of GMA in patients with different skin disorders, reporting information on demographics, clinical symptoms, treatment and clinical course. Dermatological diseases, in which GMA has been performed, include generalized pustular psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, Behcet’s disease, Sweet’s syndrome, adult-onset Still’s disease, impetigo herpetiformis, reactive arthritis, acne and hidradenitis suppurativa syndrome, cutaneous allergic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In most patients, GMA was started after the failure of conventional therapeutic options and it was helpful in the majority of cases. Based on the information summarized, GMA could be considered a valid non-pharmacological treatment option for patients with several dermatological conditions, which are difficult to treat with other pharmacological preparations.
PASH syndrome; cutaneous allergic vasculitis; granulocyte and monocyte apheresis; neutrophilic dermatoses; reactive arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus.
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis for pyoderma gangrenosum
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), a chronic aseptic inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin ulcers with elevated and undermined borders, is resistant to conventional therapies. PG is elicited by activated neutrophils and macrophages and is often associated with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, aortitis syndrome, and hematopoietic disorders. This single-center study assessed the efficacy and safety of selectively depleting myeloid-lineage leukocytes in patients with PG. Patients with PG, aged 20 or over, received 5 or 10 treatment sessions of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA), once or twice a week. Treatment efficacy was assessed based on the rate of skin ulcer reduction, the visual analog scale of pain, and the physician’s global assessment of the skin lesions. A complete response (CR) was obtained in eight patients, a nearly complete response (nCR) in three patients, and a partial response (PR) in two patients. In four of the other six, the disease remained stable (SD) and in two we observed disease progression (PD). No severe adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that GMA is a useful and safe treatment modality for PG.
Granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage apheresis for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory arthropathies: case reports
Carro Martínez AV, Montolio Chiva L, Robustillo Villarino M. Drugs Context. 2021;10:2021-8-5. https://doi.org/10.7573/dic.2021-8-5
Drug therapy of immune-mediated inflammatory arthropathies is not always satisfactory, and there is a risk of adverse events. Granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage apheresis (GMA) is a non-pharmacological therapeutic option that is beneficial and very well tolerated. GMA involves passing blood through a column with cellulose acetate beads to remove increased and activated myeloid lineage cells and improve the cytokine profile. The technique reduces pain and inflammation. We present four clinical reports that illustrate the clinical uses of GMA with the medical device Adacolumn® in patients with different backgrounds and immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis. The results were positive, and no adverse events were reported..
Leukocytapheresis for rheumatoid arthritis cases that are super-resistant to any class of biological drugs and tofacitinib
Many biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and targeted synthetic DMARDs (tsDMARDs) are currently available as treatment options for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but a subset of RA patients shows inadequate responses to any of these DMARDs. This phenomenon, which we call super-resistance, is becoming a serious concern. In this study, I present two cases of super-resistant RA in which patients failed to respond to treatment with bDMARDs of any class as well as to tsDMARD therapy with tofacitinib. In these cases, leukocytapheresis (LCAP), a treatment that removes overabundant leukocytes from the body, rapidly induced low disease activity and made patients subsequently responsive to previously ineffective DMARDs. My experience with the present cases suggests that LCAP is worth considering as an alternative therapeutic option for the management of RA patients with super-resistance to DMARD therapies.
Leukocytapheresis Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results Compared with Control Trial
Context: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease, mainly characterized by synovitis and with symmetrical joint involvement. LCAP therapy for RA patients has been shown to be safe and efficacious in some developed countries for over a decade.
Objective: The study intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of leukocytopheresis (LCAP) for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to study the influence of treatment on the levels of various serum cytokines. Design: The study was a nonblinded, nonrandomized, controlled trial. Setting: The study took place in the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology at Beijing Hospital at the National Center of Gerontology in Beijing, China. Participants: Participants were 51 patients with RA at the hospital with a 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) exceeding the 3.20 needed to fulfill the classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). Intervention: Participants were divided into 2 groups. One group (intervention group) received LCAP therapy (n = 20), while the control group (n = 31) received disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Patients receiving the LCAP therapy were treated using a Cellsorba column every 5 days for a total of 5 treatments. Outcome measures: Clinical assessment of participants’ symptoms included: (1) a tender-joint count, (2) a swollen-joint count, (3) erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR), (4) C-reactive protein levels (CRP), (5) a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, (6) the DAS28 C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) scores, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). The study also evaluated participants’ scores for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Core Data Set. Serum collected before and after therapy from both groups was analyzed for the levels of bradykinin, serotonin, heat shock protein 70, human CXC-chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16), prostaglandin E2, and macrophage inflammation protein 1α. Results: At week 4 for participants receiving the LCAP therapy, ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 were observed in 55%, 30%, and 20% of patients, respectively, compared to 19.4%, 3.2%, and 0% for patients in the control group (P < .05). Also, at week 24 of LCAP therapy, ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 were observed in 70%, 50%, and 30% of patients, respectively, which was significantly higher than the 25.8%, 12.9%, and 3.2% of patients in the control group (P < .05). The serum levels of CXCL16 and serotonin were significantly reduced in the LCAP group compared with control group. Conclusions: This study indicated that LCAP therapy can significantly decrease RA disease activity and is a safe and effective alternative therapy. LCAP therapy significantly reduced serum CXCL16 and serotonin levels, offering a putative mechanism by which it improves the articular symptoms of RA.
Recommendations for Therapeutic Apheresis by the Section “Preparative and Therapeutic Hemapheresis” of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology
The section “Preparative and Therapeutic Hemapheresis” of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI) has reviewed the actual literature and updated techniques and indications for evidence-based use of therapeutic apheresis in human disease. The recommendations are mostly in line with the “Guidelines on the Use of Therapeutic Apheresis in Clinical Practice” published by the Writing Committee of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) and have been conducted by experts from the DACH (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) region.
Monocyte subsets involved in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis
AbstractMonocytes are evolutionally conserved innate immune cells that play essential roles for the protection of the host against pathogens and also produce several inflammatory cytokines. Thus, the aberrant functioning of monocytes may affect not only host defense but also the development of inflammatory diseases. Monocytes are a heterogeneous population with phenotypical and functional differences. Most recent studies have shown that monocytes are divided into three subsets, namely classical, intermediate and non-classical subsets, both in humans and mice. Accumulating evidence showed that monocyte activation is associated with the disease progression in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it remains to be determined how monocytes contribute to the disease process and which subset is involved. In this review, we discuss the pathogenic role of monocyte subsets in SLE and RA on the basis of current studies by ourselves and others to shed light on the suitability of monocyte-targeted therapies in these diseases.
Treatment of inflammatory immunologic disease: Leukocytapheresis for inflammatory immunologic disease (tentative)
Opinion about effectiviness, safety , number of treated patientes and potential indications of LCAP and GMA.
Efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for three cases of refractory pyoderma gangrenosum
Pyoderma gangrenosum presents with chronic skin ulcers and is histologically characterized by neutrophil infiltration throughout the dermis. It is also occasionally associated with ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease, against which granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) has recently shown remarkable efficacy. We performed GCAP on three refractory cases of pyoderma gangrenosum with painful bilateral leg ulcers and hereby report the results obtained. Patient 1 was a 43-year-old woman with a four-year history of recurrent painful skin ulcers treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Patient 2 was a 29-year-old woman who had been suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum with severe pain for two weeks, associated with an 11-year history of ulcerative colitis treated with prednisolone and salazosulfapyridine. Patient 3 was a 63-year-old man with a three-year history of recurrent ulcers with pain, suffering from rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. The sizes of the lesions were reduced in all three patients following a weekly GCAP treatment for 10 or 11 consecutive weeks, and the re-epithelialization of ulcers were additionally observed in two patients. The pain disappeared dramatically in all three patients following two sessions of GCAP therapy. No adverse effects were observed for up to at least eight months after treatment. We therefore considered GCAP as one effective alternative to currently existing therapies, with regards to refractory cases of pyoderma gangrenosum.
Adsorptive monocyte and granulocyte apheresis in the chronic inflammatory illness: ulcerous colitis, Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis and Behcet syndrome
J. Muñoz, M. Clavo, O. Garcia, D. Reina, A. Vidaller, R. Lafuente & L. I. Massuet
ISBT Science Series (2007) 2, 96–101
There is a strong basis to support the modulators properties of innate immunity of GCAP, although there is a lack of data that explains deeply the interactions between the mechanisms involved. GMA may represent a new therapy that offers not a single pathway effect but a global modulation of the most important pathways involved in innate immune response. Future investigations should elucidate the intimate mechanism of action.
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