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Circulating Metabolomic Signature in Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Blunts Monocyte Hyperinflammation by Triggering Amino Acid Response

Ning Yu 1Chen Peng 1Wenjuan Chen 1Ziwen Sun 1Jianfeng Zheng 1Shujie Zhang 2Yangfeng Ding 1Yuling Shi 1 ,

Front Immunol. 2021 Sep 8;12:739514. doi: 10.3389

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), the most grievous variant of psoriasis, is featured by dysregulated systemic inflammatory response. The cellular and molecular basis of GPP is poorly understood. Blood monocytes are key players of host defense and producers of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β. How the immune response of monocytes is affected by metabolic internal environment in GPP remains unclear. Here, we performed a metabolomic and functional investigation of GPP serum and monocytes. We demonstrated a significant increase in IL-1β production from GPP monocytes. In GPP circulation, serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase reactant, was dramatically increased, which induced the release of IL-1β from monocytes in a NLRP3-dependent manner. Using metabolomic analysis, we showed that GPP serum exhibited an amino acid starvation signature, with glycine, histidine, asparagine, methionine, threonine, lysine, valine, isoleucine, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, proline, taurine and cystathionine being markedly downregulated. In functional assay, under amino acid starvation condition, SAA-stimulated mature IL-1β secretion was suppressed. Mechanistically, at post-transcriptional level, amino acid starvation inhibited the SAA-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the immune-modulatory effect of amino acid starvation was blocked by silencing general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2), suggesting the involvement of amino acid response (AAR) pathway. Collectively, our results suggested that decreased serum amino acids in GPP blunted the innate immune response in blood monocytes through AAR pathway, serving as a feedback mechanism preventing excessive inflammation in GPP.

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EO5-01 A case of pustular psoriasis deteriorated during the second pregnancy was successfully treated with intensive GMA and certolizumab pegol

Asumi Fujii, Yuki Hattori, Miho Kawamura, Yoko Mizutani, En Shu, Mariko Seishima

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 141-142

A 31-year-old woman with the IL36RN gene mutation developed psoriasis at 3 years old. As she had pustular psoriasis at 16 years old, she was treated with cyclosporine (Cys), resulting in remission at 20 years old. Afterwards, she had been maintained by topical treatment for long years.During the first pregnancy at the age of 29, she developed pustular psoriasis at 29 weeks
of gestation. She received one course of granulocyte / monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) with Cys and prednisolone (PSL), and gave birth to a girl at 33 weeks of gestation. The baby was a low birth weight child, but is healthy and has no problems in growth and development until now. However, the patient did not sufficiently improve symptoms after delivery. We thus started the treatment with infliximab (IFX) BS at 2 months postpartum. During the second pregnancy at the age of 30, we continued the IFX-BS administration. She had erythema and pustules rapidly enlarged from 23 weeks of pregnancy. Oral administration of PSL and GMA were started. However, we switched the therapy to intensive GMA (twice in a week), because the effect was insufficient. Initially, administration of IFX-BS was scheduled to end at 30 weeks of gestation, but due to unstable symptoms, we considered it was necessary to use another biologics even after 30 weeks of gestation. We switched to non-placental certolizumab pegol (CTZ) from 26 weeks of gestation and continued the administration until delivery, and she gave birth to a girl at 35 weeks of gestation. Although the baby was a low birth weight child, there was no physical abnormality and the baby was discharged after gaining weight. After delivery, administration of CTZ was discontinued and the PSL dose was gradually reduced. However,reintroduction of biologics is under consideration, because erythema and pustules still remain.

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SA6-03 MicroRNA and granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis on neutrophilic skin diseases

Yuko Higashi, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Takuro Kanekura

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 126

Neutrophilic skin diseases are a group of disorders characterized by intense dermal infiltration of neutrophils without infection. They include a variety of diseases, such as pyoderma gangrenosum, pustular psoriasis, and palmoplantar pustulosis. We demonstrated that granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) is a useful treatment modality for such refractory skin diseases. Microarray analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) was performed using sera of patients with neutrophilic skin diseases before and after GMA. Several miRNAs significantly increased in patients compared to control subjects. The expression of three
miRNAs decreased after apheresis, suggesting that these miRNAs might be involved in the pathogenesis of neutrophilic skin decreases. To prove the function of these miRNAs, HL-60, a human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line, was differentiated by the treatment of alltrans retinoic acid (ATRA). When HL-60 was differentiated to neutrophilic cells, the HEstaining shows an increased cytoplasm to nucleus ratio, condensated chromatin, and nuclear segmentation. The expression of three miRNAs increased during the neutrophilic differentiation. Stimulation of ATRA-treated HL-60 by some cytokines altered miRNA expressions. Moreover, manipulation of these miRNAs changed proliferation of cultured keratinocytes. These data
suggest that miRNAs play an important role in regulating neutrophilic differentiation and proliferation of keratinocytes in case of neutrophilic disorders such as psoriasis. These miRNAs could be markers of disease severity and response of GMA.

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GS2-03 Japanese apheresis guidelines for the management and treatment of generalized pustular psoriasis, pustulosis palmoplantaris and psoriasis arthropathica

Miho Hatanaka, Yuko Higashi, Takuro Kanekura

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 104

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare disease characterized by recurrent fever and
systemic flushing accompanied by extensive sterile pustules. Treatments of GPP are usually
topical corticosteroids, activated vitamin D3 ointment, ultraviolet light (UV) therapy, and
oral administration of etretinate, cyclosporine, or methotrexate. Recently, biologics such as
TNF- α; inhibitors, anti-IL-17- and anti-IL-23 antibodies are used. Pustulosis palmoplantaris
(PPP) is a chronic recurrent disorder of the palms and soles characterized by sterile intradermal
pustules. PPP often accompanies joint symptoms. In some instances, PPP is associated with
a focus of infection somewhere in the body; elimination of the infection sometimes improve
symptom. Some treatments of GPP are used for PPP. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a disease
characterized by skin and nail psoriasis together with widespread musculoskeletal inflammation
such as peripheral joint disease, axial joint disease, enthesitis, and dactylitis. Treatment of
PsA is oral administration of NSAID’s, cyclosporine, methotrexate and phosphodiesterase 4
inhibitors for mild to moderate cases. Biologics; TNF- αinhibitors, anti-IL-17- and anti-IL-23
antibodies; have been approved for severe or advanced cases. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorption
apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal therapy designed to remove and suppress the functions
of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes that accumulate in the inflamed tissue and are
involved in the pahogenesis. GMA may be considered as a safe treatment modality with few
side-effects for GPP, PPP and PsA. The effect and safety of GMA have been reported mostly in
case reports. Although the effect and safety of GMA were demonstrated in a multicenter study.
GMA’s utility is expected based on the mechanism of action.

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SY5-01 Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for generalized pustular psoriasis

Mariko Seishima

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 57

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare inflammatory skin disorder characterized by a fever, edema, and generalized erythema with neutrophilic pustules. It sometimes occurs in the course of psoriasis vulgaris, or develops suddenly without any history of psoriasis. Mutations of the IL36RN (deficiency of interleukin thirty-six receptor antagonist: DITRA), CARD14 and AP1S3 genes underlie monogenic auto-inflammatory disorders causing GPP. GPP patients are usually treated with oral administration of etretinate, cyclosporine, and metrexate, biologics including TNF α inhibitors, antibodies to IL-17, IL-17 receptor, and IL-23 p19, and granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA). Cyclosporine, TNF α inhibitors, and GMA are used for GPP in pediatric, pregnant, or lactating patients. GMA is an extracorporeal apheresis that removes activated granulocytes and monocytes using a column packed with cellulose acetate beads. Multicenter study was performed to access efficacy of selectively depleting the myeloid lineage leukocytes in GPP patients. Fifteen patients with persistent moderate to severe GPP despite conventional therapy were included. Based on the GPP severity scores relative to entry, the overall scores improved, and the area of erythroderma, pustules, and edema decreased. Likewise, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) improved, reflecting better daily function and quality of life. Twelve out of 14 patients were judged as responders (85.7%), and 10 out of 12 patients maintained the clinical response for10 weeks after the last GMA session without any change in medication. Thus, GMA is estimated to be safe and effective, suggesting a major role of granulocytes/ monocytes in the immunepathogenesis of GPP. Recent study showed that GMA was effective for 100% of DITRA patients and for 64.7% of the patients with IL36RN mutation-negative GPP. Thus, GMA is effective therapy for both DITRA and non-DITRA GPP patients. GMA may be a useful therapy for all GPP patients

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Evaluation of the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis on skin manifestation and joint symptoms of patients with pustulotic arthro-osteitis

Hiroshi Kawakami 1Yume Nagaoka 2Hirofumi Hirano 1Yuka Matsumoto 1Namiko Abe 1Ryoji Tsuboi 1Yoshihiko Kanno 2Yukari Okubo 1 J Dermatol 2019 Feb;46(2):144-148.

We concluded that granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis is a therapeutic option to consider when pustulotic arthro-osteitis is recalcitrant to conventional therapy.

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Generalized pustular psoriasis with CARD14 variant c.526G>C (p.Asp176His) successfully treated with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis

Asami Fujii 1Kento Fujii 1Mariko Seishima 1 , Ther Apher Dial. 2019 Jun;23(3):298-299

CARD14 /

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Genetic background and therapeutic response in generalized pustular psoriasis patients treated with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis

Scientific corner

Generalized Pustular Psoriasis With IL-36 Receptor Antagonist Mutation Successfully Treated With Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis Accompanied by Reduced Serum IL-6 Level.

Scientific corner

Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis can control juvenile generalised pustular psoriasis with mutation of the IL36RN gene.

Y Koike 1M Okubo 1T Kiyohara 1R Fukuchi 1Y Sato 1S Kuwatsuka 1T Takeichi 2M Akiyama 2K Sugiura 3A Utani 1 , Br J Dermatol. 2017 Dec;177(6):1732-1736.

Granulocyte monocyte apheresis, a process associated with few adverse events, promptly controlled the GPP of our paediatric patient, and has potential as a suitable alternative treatment for paediatric patients with DITRA.

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