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Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis Before Initiation of Steroids in Patients With Active Ulcerative Colitis (EXPECT Study): A Multicenter Prospective Clinical Trial

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Factors associated with the outcomes in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis as remission induction therapy: A multicenter cohort study

Yoh Ishiguro 1Toshihide Ohmori 2Ken Umemura 3Masahiro Iizuka 4 ,Ther Apher Dial 2020 Oct 7.

GMA was an effective treatment for corticosteroid-naïve patients and the efficacy sustained longer in those not receiving immunomodulators during GMA. GMA fulfills the notion that apheresis is to induce disease remission by removing from the body factors known to perpetuate disease. In therapeutic settings, these findings should help better decision making and avoid futile use of medical resources.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33029920/

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GS2-03 Japanese apheresis guidelines for the management and treatment of generalized pustular psoriasis, pustulosis palmoplantaris and psoriasis arthropathica

Miho Hatanaka, Yuko Higashi, Takuro Kanekura

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 104

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare disease characterized by recurrent fever and
systemic flushing accompanied by extensive sterile pustules. Treatments of GPP are usually
topical corticosteroids, activated vitamin D3 ointment, ultraviolet light (UV) therapy, and
oral administration of etretinate, cyclosporine, or methotrexate. Recently, biologics such as
TNF- α; inhibitors, anti-IL-17- and anti-IL-23 antibodies are used. Pustulosis palmoplantaris
(PPP) is a chronic recurrent disorder of the palms and soles characterized by sterile intradermal
pustules. PPP often accompanies joint symptoms. In some instances, PPP is associated with
a focus of infection somewhere in the body; elimination of the infection sometimes improve
symptom. Some treatments of GPP are used for PPP. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a disease
characterized by skin and nail psoriasis together with widespread musculoskeletal inflammation
such as peripheral joint disease, axial joint disease, enthesitis, and dactylitis. Treatment of
PsA is oral administration of NSAID’s, cyclosporine, methotrexate and phosphodiesterase 4
inhibitors for mild to moderate cases. Biologics; TNF- αinhibitors, anti-IL-17- and anti-IL-23
antibodies; have been approved for severe or advanced cases. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorption
apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal therapy designed to remove and suppress the functions
of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes that accumulate in the inflamed tissue and are
involved in the pahogenesis. GMA may be considered as a safe treatment modality with few
side-effects for GPP, PPP and PsA. The effect and safety of GMA have been reported mostly in
case reports. Although the effect and safety of GMA were demonstrated in a multicenter study.
GMA’s utility is expected based on the mechanism of action.

http://www.atalacia.com/isfa/data/abstract.pdf

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Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for psoriatic arthritis

Takuro Kanekura

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 58

Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) with the Adacolumn is an extracorporeal treatment, which uses cellulose acetate (CA) beads as adsorptive leucocytapheresis carriers designed to remove elevated and potentially activated myeloid lineage leucocytes. Case series studies on the clinical effectiveness of GMA on skin diseases and associated arthropathy attributable to activated myeloid lineage leucocytes returned remarkable outcome without any serious adverse events. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy associated with psoriasis. PsA is an intractable immune disorder and refractory to pharmacological intervention. Efficacy of selective depletion of myeloid lineage leucocytes in patients with PsA was assessed.in a multicenter setting. A total of 20 patients with moderate to severe PsA refractory to conventional and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were enrolled. Each patient received 5 sessions of GMA once a week. The primary efficacy outcome was 20% or more decrease in the American College of Rheumatology score 20 (ACR20). Partial responders received an additional 5 GMA sessions. Of 20 patients, 2 did not complete the study, 9 responded to 5 GMA sessions and 9 received 10 sessions. At the first evaluation 2 weeks after the last GMA session, 13 of the 20 (65.0%) patients achieved ACR20. ACR20 was maintained in 7 of 10 (70%) and 5 of 10 (50%) patients at the follow-up evaluation points 8 and 20 weeks after the last GMA session, respectively. GMA was well tolerated without any safety concern. This multicenter study demonstrated that GMA was effective with good safety profile in patients with PsA refractory to pharmacologicals, We present the results of this study and mode of action of GMA.

http://www.atalacia.com/isfa/data/abstract.pdf

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SY5-01 Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for generalized pustular psoriasis

Mariko Seishima

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 57

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare inflammatory skin disorder characterized by a fever, edema, and generalized erythema with neutrophilic pustules. It sometimes occurs in the course of psoriasis vulgaris, or develops suddenly without any history of psoriasis. Mutations of the IL36RN (deficiency of interleukin thirty-six receptor antagonist: DITRA), CARD14 and AP1S3 genes underlie monogenic auto-inflammatory disorders causing GPP. GPP patients are usually treated with oral administration of etretinate, cyclosporine, and metrexate, biologics including TNF α inhibitors, antibodies to IL-17, IL-17 receptor, and IL-23 p19, and granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA). Cyclosporine, TNF α inhibitors, and GMA are used for GPP in pediatric, pregnant, or lactating patients. GMA is an extracorporeal apheresis that removes activated granulocytes and monocytes using a column packed with cellulose acetate beads. Multicenter study was performed to access efficacy of selectively depleting the myeloid lineage leukocytes in GPP patients. Fifteen patients with persistent moderate to severe GPP despite conventional therapy were included. Based on the GPP severity scores relative to entry, the overall scores improved, and the area of erythroderma, pustules, and edema decreased. Likewise, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) improved, reflecting better daily function and quality of life. Twelve out of 14 patients were judged as responders (85.7%), and 10 out of 12 patients maintained the clinical response for10 weeks after the last GMA session without any change in medication. Thus, GMA is estimated to be safe and effective, suggesting a major role of granulocytes/ monocytes in the immunepathogenesis of GPP. Recent study showed that GMA was effective for 100% of DITRA patients and for 64.7% of the patients with IL36RN mutation-negative GPP. Thus, GMA is effective therapy for both DITRA and non-DITRA GPP patients. GMA may be a useful therapy for all GPP patients

http://www.atalacia.com/isfa/data/abstract.pdf

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SY3-04 Real-world experiences of cytapheresis therapy for ulcerative colitis; results from large-scale multicenter observational studies

Taku Kobayashi

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 53

There are two types of extracorporeal therapy for treating active ulcerative colitis (UC), granulocyte and monocyte adsorption (GMA) and leukocytapheresis (LCAP). Although Sawada et al reported the efficacy of LCAP by the randomized controlled trial (Sawada K et al. Am J Gastroenterol 2005), the larger sham-controlled multicenter trial of GMA failed to prove its efficacy (Sands BE et al. Gastroenterol 2008). Therefore, evidence to show their efficacy relies more on the real-world data, including the post-marketing surveillance (PMS). The large-scale PMS for LCAP was named as REFINE study, involving 847 patients from 116 medical facilities in Japan (Yokoyama Y, Kobayashi T et al. J Crohn Colitis 2014). Adverse events were seen only in 10.3% and the vast majority were mild. The overall clinical remission rate was 68.9%, and the mucosal healing rate was 62.5%. These results were very consistent with the results from PMS of 697 patients treated with GMA, which also demonstrated its real-world effectiveness and safety (Hibi T et al. Dig Liver Dis 2008). In addition, a retrospective observational study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome at 1 year and identify risk factors for relapse after LCAP was recently conducted among patients who had achieved remission in the PMS (Kobayashi T et al. J Gastroenterol 2018). The 1-year cumulative relapse free rate was 63.6%. Following LCAP, a high clinical activity and a high leukocyte count were associated with a greater risk of relapse. Intensive LCAP was associated with favorable long-term outcomes in corticosteroidrefractory patients. The response rate of re-treatment upon relapse was as high as 85%. These results on the risks of relapse as well as effectiveness of re-treatment may help to overcome the weakness of cytapheresis therapy in maintaining remission. Results from the clinical trial evaluating the clinical efficacy of intermittent maintenance cytapheresis therapy are also warranted.

http://www.atalacia.com/isfa/data/abstract.pdf

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Su1934-Safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease undergoing concomitant treatment with immunosuppressant medications: a multicenter cohort study

Maki Miyakawa, Hiroki Tanaka, Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Taro Osada, Eiji Hosoi Gastroenterol. 2019 156 (6) Suppl.S-666–S-667

Background: Few studies have assessed the safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) undergoing concomitant treatment with multiple immunosuppressant medications. To address this research gap, we investigated adverse effects associated with GMA in patients with IBD treated with multiple immunosuppressants  who  participated  in  the  “Post-marketing  surveillance  study  on  the safety and response of GMA treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis with at least one special situation who received Adacolumn® (PARTICULAR).” Methods: The PARTICULAR study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) who received GMA between November 2013 and March 2017. Patients meeting at least one of the following special situation were enrolled: elderly (<=65 years) or pediatric/adolescent (>=18 years) patients, patients with anemia, or patients undergoing concomitant treatment with multiple immunosuppressants. GMA was performed using Adacolumn® (JIMRO, Takasaki, Japan). Each patient received up to 11 GMA sessions, and all adverse events (AEs) during the study period were recorded. The incidence of AEs was investigated relative to the number and type of immunosuppressants using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 437 patients (368 UC, 69 CD) from 93 institutions were included. Of these, 140, 169, 101, and 27 patients received none, 1, 2, and >=3 immunosuppressants, respectively. In total, 125 patients received multiple immunosuppressants. Concomitant prednisolone, immunomodulators, anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, and calcineurin inhibitors were administered in 189, 151, 89, and 24 patients, respectively. The incidence of AEs was 11% in all 437 patients and 8%, 12%, 12%, and 26% in patients receiving none, 1, 2, and >=3 immunosuppressants, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, anemia and concomitant immunosuppressants were independently associated with the incidence of AEs. Particularly, a higher number of concomitant immunosuppressants showed an increasing trend with odds ratios related to AEs. In contrast, concomitant corticosteroids were associated with a reduced risk of AEs. Nausea/vomiting and headache were the most common AEs in patients on multiple immunosuppressant medications (5.6% and 3.2%, respectively). Conclusions: Concomitant treatment with immunosuppressants was independently associated with the incidence of AEs such as nausea/vomiting and headache in patients with IBD receiving GMA. As the number of concomitant immunosuppressants increased, the incidence of AEs also increased. However, our data also suggest that GMA is safe in patients with IBD receiving prednisolone.

https://www.gastrojournal.org/action/doSearch?text1=granulocyte+and+monocyte+apheresis+&field1=AllField&AfterYear=2018&BeforeYear=2021&pageSize=50&startPage=&SeriesKey=ygast

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A multicenter retrospective study aiming to identify patients who respond well to adsorptive granulomonocytapheresis in moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis.

Takayuki Yamamoto 1Takayuki Iida 2Kentaro Ikeya 2Masaichi Kato 2Ai Matsuura 2Satoshi Tamura 3Ryosuke Takano 3Shinya Tani 4Satoshi Osawa 4Ken Sugimoto 3Takahiro Shimoyama 5Hiroyuki Hanai 2 , Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2018 Jul 6;9(7):170.

Objectives: Adsorptive granulomonocytapheresis (GMA) with the Adacolumn has been introduced as a non-pharmacologic treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, a subset of patients who might respond well to GMA needs to be targeted. This study was conducted at three IBD centers to determine factors affecting the efficacy of GMA in patients with moderately-to-severely active UC. 1234567890(); 1234567890(),; 1234567890(); 1234567890(); Methods: From January 2008 to December 2017, a total of 894 active episodes (first attack or relapse) in 593 patients were treated with GMA. Clinical remission was defined as normal stool frequency and no rectal bleeding. Multiple clinical and laboratory parameters at entry were considered for efficacy assessment. Results: Clinical remission was achieved during 422 (47%) of the 894 treatment cases. In the multivariate analysis, predictors for favorable response to GMA were age ≤60 years, UC duration <1 year, Mayo endoscopic subscore 2 (vs. 3), steroid naïve UC, and biologic naïve UC. Clinical remission rate was 70% in patients with four of the five factors, 52% in patients with three factors, 46% in patients with two factors, 39% in patients with one factor, and 18% in patients with none of these factors. Overall, the clinical remission rate was significantly higher in patients with a greater number of the five predictors (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: GMA appeared to be effective in steroid naïve and biologic naïve patients with short duration of UC. Elderly patients (>60 years) and those with severe endoscopic activity did not respond well to GMA. Additional, well designed, prospective, controlled trials should strengthen our findings.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29977035/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6033883/pdf/41424_2018_Article_37.pdf

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Tu1711 – Safety and Effectiveness of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in 125 Elderly Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Multicenter Cohort Study

Hiroki Tanaka, Satoshi Motoya, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Satoshi Tanida, Seiichiro Kokuma, Eiji Hosoi Gastroenterology 2018 154 (6) Suppl.S-996–S-997

Background: There are few studies on the usefulness of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) in elderly patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated the safety and effectiveness of GMA in elderly patients who participated in the Post-marketing Surveillance Study of GMA Using Adacolumn® for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Who Have Special Situations (PARTICULAR). Methods: The PARTICULAR study is a retrospective, multicenter cohort study that included patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) who received GMA between November 2013 and March 2017. Patients with at least one special situation, including elderly patients, patients with anemia, and patients undergoing concomitant treatment with multiple immunosuppressants (IMs) were enrolled. Patients aged # 64 years were excluded from this study. GMA was performed using Adacolumn® (JIMRO, Takasaki, Japan). Each patient received up to a maximum of 11 GMA sessions. The safety of GMA was assessed in all patients. The effectiveness of GMA was assessed in patients with UC with a partial UC disease activity index (pUC-DAI) score of $ 3. Remission was defined as a pUC-DAI score of # 2. Patients receiving concomitant treatment with infliximab, adalimumab, or calcineurin inhibitors were excluded from the effectiveness assessment. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) and remission rates were compared between elderly patients with and without any special situation using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 125 elderly patients (118 UC, 7 CD) from 93 institutions were included. The median age was 73.2 years. Fifty-six patients did not have any special situation, and 69 had at least one or more special situations. The incidence of AEs was 11.2% in all patients. The incidence of AEs was significantly lower in elderly patients without any special situation (3.6%) than in those with at least one or more special situations (17.4%) (Figure 1A). AEs significantly occurred in elderly patients with anemia (21.9%) and on multiple concomitant IMs (23.8%) compared to those without any special situation (3.6%). Anemia and multiple concomitant IMs were identified as independent predictors for a higher incidence of AEs (Table 1). The effectiveness of GMA was assessed in 92 patients with UC. The remission rate was 48.9%. No difference was observed in the remission rate between elderly patients without any special situation (52.2%) and those with at least one or more special situations (45.7%) (Figure 1B). Conclusions: A low incidence of AEs (3.6%) was found in elderly IBD patients receiving GMA without any special situation. Remission was achieved by GMA in 48.6% of the elderly UC patients. Care should be taken when using GMA in elderly IBD patients with anemia or on multiple concomitant IMs

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Granulocyte-Monocyte Apheresis in Steroid-Dependent, Azathioprine-Intolerant/Resistant Moderate Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

Gianni Imperiali 1Arnaldo Amato 1Maria Maddalena Terpin 2Ivo Beverina 3Aurora Bortoli 4Massimo Devani 4Chiara Viganò 5,Gastroenterol Res Pract2017;2017:9728324.

Our study shows that a standard course of granulocyte-monocyte apheresis is associated with a 36% steroid-free clinical remission in patients with steroid-dependent, azathioprine-intolerant or resistant moderate ulcerative colitis. Apheresis might represent an alternative to biologic therapy or surgery in this specific subgroup of patients

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29403531/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5748298/pdf/GRP2017-9728324.pdf

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