Adacolumn leucocytapheresis for ulcerative colitis: clinical and endoscopic features of responders and unresponders.
The authors’ view is that in patients with UC, there is an evolving scope for therapeutic opportunity based on taking away the sources of inflammatory cytokines, also considering the favorable safety profile of GMA.
The expression profile of functional regulatory T cells, CD4+CD25high+/forkhead box protein P3+, in patients with ulcerative colitis during active and quiescent disease
K Kamikozuru 1, K Fukunaga, S Hirota, N Hida, Y Ohda, K Yoshida, Y Yokoyama, K Tozawa, K Kawa, M Iimuro, K Nagase, A R Saniabadi, S Nakamura, H Miwa, T Matsumoto Clin Exp Immunol 2009 May;156(2):320-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.03904.x. Epub 2009 Mar 9.
Regulatory T cells (T(reg)) have an essential role in maintaining immune tolerance in the gut. The functional CD4(+) T(reg) express the transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) or a CD25(high) in humans. Further, depletion of elevated granulocytes/monocytes by extracorporeal adsorption (GMA) induces immunomodulation in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the impact of GMA on T(reg). Thirty-one UC patients, clinical activity index (CAI) 12.1 +/- 2.97, refractory to conventional medications including intravenous corticosteroid and 13 healthy controls (HC), were included. Patients received five GMA sessions over 5 weeks. Biopsies from the rectal mucosa and blood samples at baseline and post-GMA were immunostained with anti-CD4/FoxP3 and anti-CD4/CD25 antibodies for immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Following GMA, 22 of 31 patients achieved remission (CAI <or= 4, P < 0.01) and their endoscopic activity index decreased from 10.6 +/- 2.32 to 4.75 +/- 1.48 (P = 0.003). The circulating CD4(+)CD25(high+) T(reg) level was low and increased markedly in responders (P < 0.02). In the nine non-responders, the baseline CD4(+)CD25(high+) T(reg) level was about 50% of the level in the responders (P < 0.03) or in the HC (P < 0.01), and all nine had to undergo colectomy. Conversely, the number of CD4(+)/FoxP3(+) mucosal T(reg) in GMA responders decreased significantly after the fifth GMA session compared with the baseline level (P < 0.05). It is believed that the CD4(+) T(reg) has an essential role in the control of immune pathology in UC patients and a net influx of these cells from the circulation into the mucosa may proceed to suppress inflammation. GMA can impact the circulating as well as the mucosal levels of T(reg).
In patients with ulcerative colitis, adsorptive depletion of granulocytes and monocytes impacts mucosal level of neutrophils and clinically is most effective in steroid naïve patients
Background: The aetiology of ulcerative colitis is inadequately understood, and drug therapy has been empirical rather than based on sound understanding of disease aetiology. This has been a major factor for refractoriness and adverse drug effects as additional complications. However, ulcerative colitis by its very nature is exacerbated and perpetuated by inflammatory cytokines, which are released by peripheral granulocytes and monocytes as well. Additionally, active ulcerative colitis is often associated with elevated peripheral granulocytes and monocytes with activation behaviour and are found in vast numbers within the colonic mucosa. Hence, from the clinicopathologic viewpoint, granulocytes and monocytes are appropriate targets for therapy in ulcerative colitis. Based on this thinking, an Adacolumn has been developed for depleting excess granulocytes and monocytes by adsorption. Methods: By colonoscopy, biopsy and histology, we investigated the impact of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption (GMA) on the mucosal level of granulocytes and monocytes in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Forty-five patients (26 steroid naïve and 19 steroid-dependent), mean age 44.7 yr, were included. Twenty patients had total colitis and 25 had left-sided colitis. Each patient was given up to 11 GMA sessions over 12 weeks. No patient received additional medications within 4 weeks (steroid) to 8 weeks (other immunosuppressants) prior to entry or during the GMA course. Colonoscopy together with biopsy was done at entry and within 2 weeks after the last GMA session. Results: At entry, the mean clinical activity index was 12.6; range 10-16. A total of 400 colonic biopsies were examined, which revealed massive infiltration of the colonic mucosa by granulocytes, and GMA was associated with striking reduction of granulocytes in the mucosa. At week 12, 33 of 45 patients (73.3%, P<0.01) had achieved clinical remission (the mean clinical activity index <or= 4). Colonoscopy revealed that most non-responders had deep colonic ulcers and extensive loss of the mucosal tissue. The response rate in steroid naïve subgroup was 22 of 26 patients (84.6%, P<0.005) and in steroid-dependent was 11 of 19 (57.9%, P<0.05 and P=0.02154 for steroid naïve vs. steroid-dependent). Patients who achieved remission could continue with their salicylates. On average, remission was sustained for 7.8 months in all 33 responders. Conclusions: This is the first report showing a striking difference in clinical response to GMA between steroid naïve and steroid-dependent patients. Further, patients with deep colonic ulcers together with extensive loss of the mucosal tissue are not like to respond to GMA.
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