Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis for Refractory Skin Diseases due to Activated Neutrophils, Psoriasis, and Associated Arthropathy.
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA), an extracorporeal apheresis instrument whose column contains cellulose acetate (CA) beads, is designed to remove activated granulocytes and monocytes. We previously demonstrated that GMA was useful for treating neutrophilic dermatoses and associated arthropathy as it adsorbs Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18)-expressing neutrophils to the CA beads by the binding of complement component (iC3b) and CD11b expressed on activated neutrophils. The objective of this study is to further assess the clinical effectiveness of GMA in the treatment of neutrophilic dermatoses and associated arthropathy. The effect of GMA for skin lesions and joint lesions was assessed in 44 and 23 patients, respectively. Mac-1 expression on peripheral neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. Skin lesions and arthropathy improved in 39 of 44 patients (88.6%) and 22 of 23 (95.6%), respectively. Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) expression on the peripheral neutrophils, 27.1 ± 6.66 MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) before treatment, was reduced to 17.9 ± 3.02 MFI by GMA (P < 0.05). Clinical effectiveness of GMA for the treatment of intractable neutrophilic dermatoses and associated arthropathy was further confirmed.
Granulocyte Apheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Possible Mechanisms of Effect
We have studied the effects of granulocyte apheresis in 18 patients with ulcerative colitis and 6 with Crohn’s disease who had failed to respond to conventional therapy. Patients were treated with weekly apheresis using a granulocyte removal column. We found a mean reduction in circulating granulocytes of 1.29 × 109 cells/L with no significant alterations in red blood cell monocyte, total lymphocyte, absolute T-helper, or T-cytotoxic lymphocyte counts. There were no significant changes in complement levels or immunoglobulin subclasses. There was a signifycant increase in granulocyte adhesion and a reduction in L-selectin expression. The removal of granulocytes is unlikely to explain the effect of granulocytapheresis. The markedly increased expression of αm integrin/Mac-1 and low L-selectin expression alter the capability of granulocytes to migrate to sites of inflammation and may be responsible for the improvement observed in patients treated with granulocyte apheresis.
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) for refractory skin diseases caused by activated neutrophils and psoriatic arthritis: evidence that GCAP removes Mac-1-expressing neutrophils
In the present study, we have shown that granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP), an extracorporeal apheresis instrument whose column contains cellulose acetate (CA) beads, is useful for skin diseases attributable to activated granulocytes and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We assessed the clinical effectiveness of GCAP and investigated the mechanisms underlying the adsorption of pathogenic granulocytes. The effect of GCAP was assessed in 14 patients with neutrophilic dermatoses and 16 with PsA. The mechanisms by which the instrument adsorbs activated granulocytes were investigated using an in vitro mini-column system that mimics the GCAP. Skin lesions and arthropathy improved in 22 of 29 patients (75.9%) and 14 of 18 (77.8%), respectively. Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) expression on the peripheral neutrophils, increased compared with normal subjects, was reduced by GCAP. In the mini-column system, CA beads adsorbed 50% neutrophils; and adsorption was inhibited significantly by treating plasma with EDTA and blood cells with antihuman CD11b monoclonal antibody. GCAP was useful for treating neutrophilic dermatoses and PsA. GCAP adsorbs Mac-1-expressing neutrophils to the CA beads by the binding of complement component (iC3b) on CA beads and CD11b expressed on activated neutrophils.
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