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Leukocyte adsorption apheresis for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum

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Cellular immune response triggered by granulocytoapheresis in ulcerative colitis patients under biological treatment


GMA induces specific immunoregulatory changes in leukocyte’s subpopulations. We confirm the depletion of the
monocytes with proinflammatory phenotype after GMA. Treg and B effector cells shift to a more immunotolerant phenotype. The emergence of subpopulations with the atypical immunofluorescence staining (CXCR3+CRTH2+) related to immature T cells support the immunomodulatory effects of GMA. These findings could help to understand the pathology of UC and to identify targeted immune subpopulations for treatment

P0246 UEG.pdf

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Chie Kurihara, Toshihide Ohmori, Kenichi Inaba, Shunsuke Komoto, Kengo Tomita, Ryota Hokari Gastroenterology 2020 158 (6) Suppl.S-1046

Background: Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) is non-pharmacological therapy which selective depletion of activated granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages from peripheral blood, and it is used as induction therapy for IBD. However, its therapeutic mechanism has not been well characterized. Recently, it has been reported that Th17 releases chemokines which attract neutrophils, and some neutrophils produce IL17. We investigated that changes in mRNA expression levels of inflammation associated molecules such as cytokines, chemokines in colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients before and after GMA treatment in order to obtain further understanding of GMA therapeutic mechanisms. Methods: Thirty-two active UC patients (Mayo score ≥ 5 and Mayo endoscopic score ≥ 2) and 10 non-IBD control subjects were enrolled in this study. All UC patients received 10 times of GMA, and colonoscopies were applied before the first GMA and after the last GMA. Control subjects underwent colonoscopies for screening of colon cancer. Assessment of GMA therapeutic efficacy was determined based on Mayo score. Inflammation-related molecules mRNA expressions were determined by quantitative RT-PCR using biopsy specimen of colonic mucosa. Results: GMA treatment efficacy is 11 patients (34.4%) achieved clinical remission, 17 patients (53.1%) were response and 4 patients (12.5%) were non-response. Baseline characteristics such as sex, location of disease, CRP, WBC and Mayo score were not significantly different according to GMA efficacy. In the remission group, mRNA levels in mucosal tissue of IL1β, IL6, IL17, IL23 and GM-CSF which are Th17-asociated cytokines significantly decreased after the last GMA compared to the baseline levels(P<0,05) in contrast, expression of these mRNA tended to increase following GMA treatment in the non-response group. On the other hand, IL12 and IFN- γ which are associated with Th1 did not significantly decrease in the remission group. mRNA levels of leukocyte trafficking associated molecules such as MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1, integrinβ7, IL8 and MIP-1β significantly decreased following GMA treatment in the remission group(P <0.05), whereas only IL8 mRNA expression in the non-response group tended to increase. IL1 β, IL6, GM-CSF which are Th17-asociated cytokines and IL8 mRNA expressions in post-GMA treatment were significantly higher in the non-response group compared to the remission group or control group(P <0.05). Conclusion: In UC patients who achieved clinical remission by GMA, Th17- associated cytokines and leukocyte trafficking associated molecules but not Th1-asociated cytokines decreased significantly. Furthermore, Th17-asociated cytokines increased in the non-responders. These results reaffirm the involvement of neutrophil in the pathophysiology of UC and could be helpful for characterizing of GMA therapeutic mechanism.

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Adacolumn for Hemoperfusion to Deplete Inflammatory Leucocytes as an Alternative or Complementary to Drug Therapy in Patients with Immune Disorders: Basic Mechanisms and Concepts for Therapeutic Efficacy

Jia HuangQian WangYongjing ChengYingjuan ChenMing GaoFeng YangBingyao MuRongwei ZhouCibo Huang, Altern Ther Health Med. 2020 Jul;26(4):36-42.

This study indicated that LCAP therapy can significantly decrease RA disease activity and is a safe and effective alternative therapy. LCAP therapy significantly reduced serum CXCL16 and serotonin levels, offering a putative mechanism by which it improves the articular symptoms of RA.

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Involvement of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Leukocyte Adsorption-Induced Production of Hepatocyte Growth Factor.

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Selective depletion of peripheral granulocyte/monocyte enhances the efficacy of scheduled maintenance infliximab in Crohn’s disease

Ken Fukunaga,Yoko Yokoyama,Koji Kamikozuru,Koji Yoshida,Risa Kikuyama,Kazuko Nagase,Shiro Nakamura,Yoshiyuki Takei,Hiroto Miwa,Takayuki Matsumoto

J. Clin. Apheresis, 2010;25(4):226-8. doi: 10.1002/jca.20242.

Background: This is the first report on a case of Crohn’s disease (CD), who was successfully maintained with a combination of infliximab (IFX) and selective depletion of granulocytes/monocytes by adsorption (GMA). Case: A 33-year-old female with CD activity index (CDAI) 294.2 responded to iv IFX (5mg/kg) administered at weeks 0, 2, and 6 in combination with 3000 mg/day oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; CDAI = 118). Then IFX at 8 week intervals was given as maintenance therapy. Two weeks before the 5th scheduled IFX, the patient worsened with an increase in stool frequency and a rise in CDAI. GMA was administered at weeks 5, 6, and 7 after her 6th iv IFX. Her CDAI decreased from 166.2 to 126.3 and 111.9 before 2nd and 3rd GMA sessions. She received her 7th iv IFX while the CDAI was 83.6. GMA course was repeated before 8th and 9th IFX. The patient remained in stable clinical and endoscopic remission without experiencing any serious side effect. After achieving mucosal healing, the patient decided to cease IFX therapy while continuing with GMA. Conclusions: IFX appears to induce and maintain remission of CD, but it may lose its efficacy after repeated administration. GMA is safe and by selectively depleting elevated/activated leukocytes may be a useful adjunct for IFX efficacy.

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Biological Effect of Anaphylatoxin C5a on the Generation of Anti-inflammatory Substances in Leukocyte Adsorption

Shoichi Nishise,Yuji Takeda,Yuko Nishise,Shoichiro Fujishima,Tomohiko Orii,Sayaka Otake,Takeshi Sato,Yu Sasaki,Hiroaki Takeda,Sumio Kawata

Biological Effect of Anaphylatoxin C5a on the Generation of Anti-inflammatory Substances in Leukocyte Adsorption. Therap. Apher. Dial. 2009 13(6), 509–514. doi:10.1111/j.1744-9987.2009.00779.x 

Anaphylatoxins, which are involved in both pro-inflammatory processes and a variety of anti-inflammatory effects, are produced during granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis. We noticed the anti-inflammatory effects of C5a, the strongest anaphylatoxin, in granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C5a on interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) generation in granulocyte and monocyte adsorption. Peripheral blood containing nafamostat mesilate as an endogenous complement activation inhibitor was divided into four groups: (1) no recombinant C5a added, no contact with cellulose acetate (CA) beads (control group); (2) no C5a added, contact with CA beads; (3) C5a added, no contact with CA beads; and (4) C5a added, contact with CA beads. After incubation, IL-1ra and HGF in plasma were measured. IL-1ra was significantly higher in group 3, in which only C5a was added in the absence of CA beads, compared to groups 2 (P < 0.01) and 4 (P < 0.05). HGF was significantly higher only in group 4, in which C5a was added in the presence of CA beads (P < 0.05), but did not increase in the absence of CA beads. C5a can directly induce IL-1ra generation without the granulocyte and monocyte adsorption stimuli to CA beads, but can synergistically induce HGF generation with the adsorption stimuli, indicating C5a has different effects on IL-1ra and HGF generation.

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W1254 The Decreased TLR2 Expression and Elevated IL-8 Production On Peripheral Leukocytes in Patients with Active Ulcerative Colitis: the Modulation of the Leukocyte Sensitivity to Pgn By Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis

Suzuki, Yasuo; Yamada, Akihiro; Aoki, Hiroshi; Osamura, Aisaku; Nakamura, Kentaro; Yoshimatsu, Yasushi; Hosoe, Nobuo; Takada, Nobuo; Tsuda, Yukio; Shirai, Koji (2008). W1254 The Decreased TLR2 Expression and Elevated IL-8 Production On Peripheral Leukocytes in Patients with Active Ulcerative Colitis: the Modulation of the Leukocyte Sensitivity to Pgn By Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis. Gastroenterology, 134(4), A-665–. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(08)63105-4 

BACKGROUND & AIM: Mucosal lesions of active ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by acute inflammatory cell (polymorphonuclear granulocyte, PMN) infiltrate and ulceration. Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) using a column device, Adacolumn, selectively adsorbs and removes leukocytes from the peripheral blood, and has been reported to be effective in patients with active UC. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on PMNs and monocytes in patients with active UC as compared to the level in healthy subjects and see the impact of GMA on TLR2. METHODS: Fortyeight patients with active UC, Clinical Activity Index (CAI, Lichtiger index) ≥5, were included in this study. Patients received several GMA sessions (maximum 10 sessions), and CAI ≤ 3 was considered remission. Blood samples were obtained from patients at each GMA session and also from healthy subjects (n=14), after obtaining informed consent. The expression of TLR2 was investigated by flowcytometry. In several samples, IL-8 production by cultured blood upon stimulation with peptidoglycan (PGN, a ligand for TLR2) was measured (n=21). RESULTS: An average of CAI at the entry was 11.0 (n=48), and remission rate by GMA was 56.3%(27/48). At the baseline, the expression of TLR2 on PMN of patients with active UC was significantly less than the level in healthy subjects (p<0.001). Further, the improvement in CAI was accompanied by a trend towards normalization of TLR2 on PMN (up-regulation, p<0.05) together with a significant fall (P<0.01) of plasma IL-8 level. However, as for the patients with still active symptoms (CAI>5) in course of GMA therapy, the decreased TLR2 on PMN and the elevated release of IL-8 from PGN-stimulated leukocytes were kept on. By exposing blood to the column carriers In Vitro, TLR2 expression on the cell surface of PMN was decreased, but increased within the cellular of PMN. Similarly, in the blood on column outflow of GMA, the TLR2 expression on PMN and IL-8 production by PGN-stimulation were significantly decreased (TLR2:P<0.001, IL-8:P<0.001), indicating that leukocyte sensitivity to PGN is weakened by GMA column. CONCLUSION: The expression of TLR2 on PMN in patients with active UC is significantly decreased compared with remission status or healthy subjects. In connection with the decreased TLR2 expression, the IL-8 production by PGN-stimulated leukocytes is elevated in patients with active UC. These changes seem to reflect PMN activation based on UC disease activity. GMA or exposure of blood to GMA carriers is associated with down-modulation of the TLR2 expression on PMN and also leukocyte sensitivity to PGN

IL-8 / pgn / TLR-2 /

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Reduction of Dendritic Cells by Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Grit Waitz 1Sebastian PetermannStefan LiebeJoerg EmmrichWolfgang Ramlow

Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Sep;53(9):2507-15. doi: 10.1007/s10620-007-0168-8. Epub 2008 Feb 6.

The influence of the granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMCAP) on cell populations participating in mechanisms of tolerance, e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), is still not very clear. In a first step, we aimed to investigate changes in the DC population of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 13) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9). In a second step, we studied the changes in peripheral DCs in a small group of patients with active UC before and after Adacolumn apheresis (n = 7). For this purpose, plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs and their maturation markers CD40, CD80, and CD86 were measured using four-color flow cytometry in the peripheral blood. After apheresis, and in acute flare-ups, we identified a significantly lower number of lymphocytes, plasmacytoid, and myeloid DCs. In conclusion, the additional removal of peripheral DCs by GMCAP, which otherwise would contribute to the inflammatory process in the gut, may lead to a higher tolerogeneic status towards luminal antigens.

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Granulocyte apheresis for pouchitis with arthritis and pyoderma gangrenosum after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: a case report

Ritsuko Yanaru-FujisawaTakayuki MatsumotoShotaro NakamuraShuji KochiMitsuo IidaFutoshi KohdaMinako HirahashiTakashi YaoRyuichi Case Reports Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2005 Aug;11(8):780 DOI: 10.1097/01.mib.0000172558.39767.b7

Our case and the case of Kanekura et al8 suggest that circulating leukocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PG and that GCAP in combination with corticosteroids may be a promising strategy for intractable PG. Furthermore, as has been the case for active UC, GCAP may be a choice for severe pouchitis. An accumulation of data with respect to the effect of GCAP on pouchitis seems to be warranted.

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