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Apheresis: A cell-based therapeutic tool for the inflammatory bowel disease

Farah Yasmin 1Hala Najeeb 1Unaiza Naeem 1Abdul Moeed 1Thoyaja Koritala 2Salim Surani 3 4

World J Clin Cases  2022 Jul 26;10(21):7195-7208. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i21.7195.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a hallmark of leukocyte infiltration, followed by the release of cytokines and interleukins. Disease progression to Ulcerative Colitis (UC) or Crohn’s Disease (CD) remained largely incurable. The genetic and environmental factors disrupt enteral bacteria in the gut, which hampers the intestinal repairing capability of damaged mucosa. Commonly practiced pharmacological therapies include 5-aminosalicylic acid with corticosteroids and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. New interventions such as CDP571 and TNF-blocking RDP58 report the loss of patient response. This review discusses the non-pharmacologic selective granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis (GMA) and leukocytapheresis (LCAP) that have been proposed as treatment modalities that reduce mortality. GMA, an extracorporeal vein-to-vein technique, presents a strong safety profile case for its use as a viable therapeutic option compared to GMA’s conventional medication safety profile. GMA reported minimal to no side effects in the pediatric population and pregnant women. Numerous studies report the efficacious nature of GMA in UC patients, whereas data on CD patients is insufficient. Its benefits outweigh the risks and are emerging as a favored non-pharmacological treatment option. On the contrary, LCAP uses a general extracorporeal treatment that entraps leukocytes and suppresses cytokine release. It has been deemed more efficacious than conventional drug treatments, the former causing better disease remission, and maintenance. Patients with UC/CD secondary to complications have responded well to the treatment. Side effects of the procedure have remained mild to moderate, and there is little evidence of any severe adverse event occurring in most age groups. LCAP decreases the dependence on steroids and immunosuppressive therapies for IBD. The review will discuss the role of GMA and LCAP.

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Chie Kurihara, Toshihide Ohmori, Kenichi Inaba, Shunsuke Komoto, Kengo Tomita, Ryota Hokari Gastroenterology 2020 158 (6) Suppl.S-1046

Background: Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) is non-pharmacological therapy which selective depletion of activated granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages from peripheral blood, and it is used as induction therapy for IBD. However, its therapeutic mechanism has not been well characterized. Recently, it has been reported that Th17 releases chemokines which attract neutrophils, and some neutrophils produce IL17. We investigated that changes in mRNA expression levels of inflammation associated molecules such as cytokines, chemokines in colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients before and after GMA treatment in order to obtain further understanding of GMA therapeutic mechanisms. Methods: Thirty-two active UC patients (Mayo score ≥ 5 and Mayo endoscopic score ≥ 2) and 10 non-IBD control subjects were enrolled in this study. All UC patients received 10 times of GMA, and colonoscopies were applied before the first GMA and after the last GMA. Control subjects underwent colonoscopies for screening of colon cancer. Assessment of GMA therapeutic efficacy was determined based on Mayo score. Inflammation-related molecules mRNA expressions were determined by quantitative RT-PCR using biopsy specimen of colonic mucosa. Results: GMA treatment efficacy is 11 patients (34.4%) achieved clinical remission, 17 patients (53.1%) were response and 4 patients (12.5%) were non-response. Baseline characteristics such as sex, location of disease, CRP, WBC and Mayo score were not significantly different according to GMA efficacy. In the remission group, mRNA levels in mucosal tissue of IL1β, IL6, IL17, IL23 and GM-CSF which are Th17-asociated cytokines significantly decreased after the last GMA compared to the baseline levels(P<0,05) in contrast, expression of these mRNA tended to increase following GMA treatment in the non-response group. On the other hand, IL12 and IFN- γ which are associated with Th1 did not significantly decrease in the remission group. mRNA levels of leukocyte trafficking associated molecules such as MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1, integrinβ7, IL8 and MIP-1β significantly decreased following GMA treatment in the remission group(P <0.05), whereas only IL8 mRNA expression in the non-response group tended to increase. IL1 β, IL6, GM-CSF which are Th17-asociated cytokines and IL8 mRNA expressions in post-GMA treatment were significantly higher in the non-response group compared to the remission group or control group(P <0.05). Conclusion: In UC patients who achieved clinical remission by GMA, Th17- associated cytokines and leukocyte trafficking associated molecules but not Th1-asociated cytokines decreased significantly. Furthermore, Th17-asociated cytokines increased in the non-responders. These results reaffirm the involvement of neutrophil in the pathophysiology of UC and could be helpful for characterizing of GMA therapeutic mechanism.

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Sa1316 Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis (GMA) Might Be Useful for Patients With Ulcerative Colitis by Inhibition of S100A12-S100a12 Correlates With Acute and Chronic Inflammation by Induction of CCL and CXCL Chemokines

Shingo Kato, Kazuhito Kani, Hidehiko Takabayashi, Ryuichi Yamamoto, Koji Yakabi Gastroenterology 2011 140(5) Suppl. S-279–S-280

Backgrounds&Aims; Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) adsorbs mainly granulocyte and monocytes, as well as Leukocyteapheresis (LMA) filters many cells such as granulocyte, monocytes, lymphocytes and platelets. However, there was no significant difference in clinical effectiveness between GMA and LMA (Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;20:629). We hypothesized effectiveness of GMA and LMA might be dependent on depletion of granulocyte and monocytes. S100A12 was reported to be exclusively expressed in neutrophils and up-regulated by TNF α. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of serum S100 A12 concentration in the GMA treatments and whether S100A12 increases the expression of adhesion molecules, CXCL and CCL chemokines. Methods; 24 patients with ulcerative colitis were treated with GMA. Serum S100A12 was estimated by ELISAmethods.Clinicalactivityindex(CAI)andserumCRPconcentrationwerealsochecked. Immunohistochemical staining of S100A12 and receptor for advanced glication end products (RAGE) were performed in the operated specimens of patients with ulcerative colitis and with colonic carcinoma (control). HUVEC were seeded into 12 well plates and confluent plates were used to experiments. Each experiment was performed in triplicate. HUVEC were treated with human recombinant S100A12 protein. RNA was extracted by RNeasy Mini Kit. 1.5μg RNA was reverse-transcriptated into cDNA. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-8, CCL-2 (MCP1), CCL5 (RANTES), CXCL9 (IP-10) and CXCL10 (Mig) mRNA was quantitated by realtime PCR. Results; S100A12 staining was faintly recognized in the mucosal layer of normal control. S100A12 staining was increased in infiltrating cells in inflamed colon in patients with ulcerative colitis. Strong staining was also recognized in crypt abscess. RAGE staining was also faintly recognized in the epithelial cells in nornmal control. However, RAGE staining was increased in the inflamed epithelial cells. Significantly serum S100A12 concentration was positively correlated with CAI (n=34, p=0.02, rs=0.404). 16 patients were able to estimate S100A12 concentration in the points of pre-and post-GMA treatment. 13 patients wereGMA-respondersand3patientswere nonGMA-responders.SerumS100A12concentration was significantly decreased in GMA responders (pre-vs post-GMA, 1.34±1.08 vs 0.60±0.50, p<0.05). However, Serum S100A12 concentration of non GMA-responders was gradually increased with GMA treatments. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-8, IP-10, Mig, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA expressions were increased by S100A12 in HUVEC cell lines in time and dose-dependent manners. Conclusion; one of the mechanisms of GMA effect might be correlated with depletion of S100A12 by adsorption of activated neutrophils. S100A12 might aggravate acute and chronic inflammation by up-regulation of adhesion molecules, CXCL and CCL chemokines.

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Current and emerging drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

John K TriantafillidisEmmanuel Merikas, and Filippos Georgopoulos Drug Des Devel Ther. 2011; 5: 185–210. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S11290

During the last decade a large number of biological agents against tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as many biochemical substances and molecules specifically for the medical treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have been developed. This enormous progress was a consequence of the significant advances in biotechnology along with the increased knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, conventional therapies remain the cornerstone of treatment for most patients. During recent years conventional and biologic IBD therapies have been optimized. Newer mesalazine formulations with a reduced pill size and only one dose per day demonstrate similar efficacy to older formulations. New corticosteroids retain the efficacy of older corticosteroids while exhibiting a higher safety profile. The role of antibiotics and probiotics has been further clarified. Significant progress in understanding thiopurine metabolism has improved the effective dose along with adjunctive therapies. Quite a large number of substances and therapies, including biologic agents other than TNF-α inhibitors, unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, microbes and microbial products, leukocytapheresis, and other substances under investigation, could offer important benefits to our patients. In this paper we review the established and emerging therapeutic strategies in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

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Granulocyte apheresis for pouchitis with arthritis and pyoderma gangrenosum after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: a case report

Ritsuko Yanaru-FujisawaTakayuki MatsumotoShotaro NakamuraShuji KochiMitsuo IidaFutoshi KohdaMinako HirahashiTakashi YaoRyuichi Case Reports Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2005 Aug;11(8):780 DOI: 10.1097/01.mib.0000172558.39767.b7

Our case and the case of Kanekura et al8 suggest that circulating leukocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PG and that GCAP in combination with corticosteroids may be a promising strategy for intractable PG. Furthermore, as has been the case for active UC, GCAP may be a choice for severe pouchitis. An accumulation of data with respect to the effect of GCAP on pouchitis seems to be warranted.

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In vivo modulation of leukocyte trafficking receptor following therapeutic purging of myeloid cells: implications for treatment of HIV infection and other immune disorders

Priscilla Biswas Barbara Mantelli Alberto Beretta Clinical Immunology 109 (2003) 355–358 DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2003.07.001 

Therapeutic purging of myeloid cells (monocytes and granulocytes) (MYP) has been proposed as a treatment of severe inflammatoryconditions like ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Although direct purging of inflammatory cells contributes to its efficacy, the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. We have tested MYP in a pilot study on 12 patients with chronic HIV infection, of whom 6 underwent MYP. Three/6 MYP patients and none of the controls displayed a strong and long-lasting decrease of cells expressing CXCR3,a major chemokine receptor responsible for trafficking of inflammatory cells. In these three patients, the number of circulating CD4 T cells increased during treatment. The data provide a rational for the use of MYP as a therapeutic tool acting via the modulation of immune cell trafficking

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