Apheresis: A cell-based therapeutic tool for the inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a hallmark of leukocyte infiltration, followed by the release of cytokines and interleukins. Disease progression to Ulcerative Colitis (UC) or Crohn’s Disease (CD) remained largely incurable. The genetic and environmental factors disrupt enteral bacteria in the gut, which hampers the intestinal repairing capability of damaged mucosa. Commonly practiced pharmacological therapies include 5-aminosalicylic acid with corticosteroids and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. New interventions such as CDP571 and TNF-blocking RDP58 report the loss of patient response. This review discusses the non-pharmacologic selective granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis (GMA) and leukocytapheresis (LCAP) that have been proposed as treatment modalities that reduce mortality. GMA, an extracorporeal vein-to-vein technique, presents a strong safety profile case for its use as a viable therapeutic option compared to GMA’s conventional medication safety profile. GMA reported minimal to no side effects in the pediatric population and pregnant women. Numerous studies report the efficacious nature of GMA in UC patients, whereas data on CD patients is insufficient. Its benefits outweigh the risks and are emerging as a favored non-pharmacological treatment option. On the contrary, LCAP uses a general extracorporeal treatment that entraps leukocytes and suppresses cytokine release. It has been deemed more efficacious than conventional drug treatments, the former causing better disease remission, and maintenance. Patients with UC/CD secondary to complications have responded well to the treatment. Side effects of the procedure have remained mild to moderate, and there is little evidence of any severe adverse event occurring in most age groups. LCAP decreases the dependence on steroids and immunosuppressive therapies for IBD. The review will discuss the role of GMA and LCAP.
Toxic Megacolon: Background, Pathophysiology, Management Challenges and Solutions
Leukocytapheresis (LCAP) is useful in the management of TM
An Update on Current Pharmacotherapeutic Options for the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis
The main goals of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) treatment are to both induce and maintain the clinical and endoscopic remission of disease, reduce the incidence of complications such as dysplasia and colorectal carcinoma and improve quality of life. Although a curative medical treatment for UC has not yet been found, new therapeutic strategies addressing specific pathogenetic mechanisms of disease are emerging. Notwithstanding these novel therapies, non-biological conventional drugs remain a mainstay of treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize current therapeutic strategies used as treatment for ulcerative colitis and to briefly focus on emerging therapeutic strategies, including novel biologic therapies and small molecules. To date, multiple therapeutic approaches can be adopted in UC and the range of available compounds is constantly increasing. In this era, the realization of well-designed comparative clinical trials, as well as the definition of specific therapeutic models, would be strongly suggested in order to achieve personalized management for UC patients.
Leukocyte adsorption apheresis for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum
Leukocytapheresis for rheumatoid arthritis cases that are super-resistant to any class of biological drugs and tofacitinib
Many biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and targeted synthetic DMARDs (tsDMARDs) are currently available as treatment options for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but a subset of RA patients shows inadequate responses to any of these DMARDs. This phenomenon, which we call super-resistance, is becoming a serious concern. In this study, I present two cases of super-resistant RA in which patients failed to respond to treatment with bDMARDs of any class as well as to tsDMARD therapy with tofacitinib. In these cases, leukocytapheresis (LCAP), a treatment that removes overabundant leukocytes from the body, rapidly induced low disease activity and made patients subsequently responsive to previously ineffective DMARDs. My experience with the present cases suggests that LCAP is worth considering as an alternative therapeutic option for the management of RA patients with super-resistance to DMARD therapies.
Safety and efficacy of single-needle leukocyte apheresis for treatment of ulcerative colitis
Yoichiro Shindo 1, Keiichi Mitsuyama 2, Hiroshi Yamasaki 1 2 3, Tetsuro Imai 4, Shinichiro Yoshioka 1 2, Kotaro Kuwaki 1 2, Ryosuke Yamauchi 1 2, Tetsuhiro Yoshimura 1 2, Toshihiro Araki 1 2, Masaru Morita 1 2, Kozo Tsuruta 1 2, Sayo Yamasaki 1, Kei Fukami 5, Takuji Torimura, Ther Apher Dial 2020 Oct;24(5):503-510.
Single-needle (SN) apheresis may be safe and effective and may reduce patient burden during UC treatment. Nevertheless, further comparative studies are needed.
Apheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Evidence
Daniel Vasile Balaban, Mariana Jinga, Crohn’s Disease Recent Advances
While leukocyte-derived proinflammatory cytokines have been validated as successful targets in IBD treatment, so should leukocytes themselves be considered as treatment options. As activated leukocytes migrate into the bowel wall and drive the inflammatory cascade in IBD patients, their depletion by apheresis techniques are considered beneficial to control the mucosal inflammation.
Leukapheresis, consisting in either granulomonocyte apheresis or leukocyte apheresis, are cell-based therapies with promising results in some patient categories and with a good safety profile. They have been studied as an alternative in patients with steroid toxicity, dependency or refractoriness, or in the event of contraindications to conventional therapy. Most of the early studies were not controlled, with only a few randomized controlled trials providing quality data on their efficacy. Future studies should be designed to look at selection of IBD patients who benefit most and safely from this non-pharmacological therapy.
Apheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Evidence
Daniel Vasile Balaban and Mariana Jinga Crohn’s Disease Recent Advances book, October 15th, 2020 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93605
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have become a major focus for gastroenterologists worldwide, with the increasing incidence and complexity of cases, which pose therapeutic challenges. Currently available approaches fail in controlling the disease activity in a significant proportion of patients and some of the therapies are associated with significant adverse events. Although new molecules are on the horizon and treatment strategies have been optimized, novel therapeutic tools are much needed in IBD for patients who fail to attain control of the disease. Apheresis is now a common non-pharmacological therapeutic modality used in several pathologies, IBD also. In the current review, we summarize currently available evidence with respect to selective apheresis in IBD.
GS1-04 The apheresis guidelines for digestive diseases
Kazuaki Inoue, Tomoki Furuya, Yoko Yokoyama
The apheresis guidelines for digestive diseases are divided into the following four fields: acute liver failure (ALF); ascites; acute pancreatitis (AP); inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
IBD: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are the major forms of I BD. Although their etiology is still not fully understood, activated leukocytes are significant factors in their exacerbations. In Japan, granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) and leukocytapheresis (LCAP) are approved for IBD treatment. They are recommended for remission induction in UC
patients with mild-to-moderate activity, whether steroid-resistant or -dependent. Although GMA is recommended for remission induction in colonic type CD refractory to conventional therapy, its efficacy is lower than in UC patients.
poster at ISFA 2019 pag 100-101
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