Generalized Pustular Psoriasis With IL-36 Receptor Antagonist Mutation Successfully Treated With Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis Accompanied by Reduced Serum IL-6 Level.
Molecular fingerprints of neutrophil-dependent oxidative stress in inflammatory bowel disease
Neutrophil accumulation within epithelial crypts and in the intestinal mucosa directly correlates with clinical disease activity and epithelial injury in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current advances have defined the mechanisms by which neutrophils are activated or migrate across endothelial and mucosal epithelial cells. A better understanding of this process will likely provide new insights into novel treatment strategies for IBD. Especially, activated neutrophils produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase within intestinal mucosa, which induce oxidative stress. Posttranslational modification of proteins generated by these reactive species serves as a “molecular fingerprint” of protein modification by lipid peroxidation-, nitric oxide-, and myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants. Measurement of these modified proteins may serve both as a quantitative index of oxidative stress and an important new biological marker of clinical relevance to IBD. We have succeeded in the clinical development of a novel granulocyte adsorptive apheresis therapy for IBD. In this review, we discuss current advances in defining the role of neutrophil-dependent oxidative stress in IBD.
Suppression of Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion by Granulocyte/Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in Active Ulcerative Colitis
Akira Andoh,Tomoyuki Tsujikawa,Osamu Inatomi,Yasuyuki Deguchi,Kazunori Hata,Katsuyuki Kitoh,Masaya Sasaki,Keiichi Mitsuyama,Yoshihide Fujiyama Therap Apher Dial(2005) 9, 2; 23-127, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1774-9987.2005.00229.x
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of granulocyte/monocyte adsorption apheresis, changes were investigated in the cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Four patients with active UC were enrolled. All patients responded to granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis. A total of 20 sessions of four patients were analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral venous blood within 5min before and after each session of granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis. The cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α for 24h, and the secreted IL-8 and IL-6 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IL-1β-induced IL-8 and IL-6 secretion was significantly decreased after granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis. TNF-α-induced IL-8 secretion was also significantly decreased after apheresis, but there was no significant difference in TNF-α-induced IL-6 secretion (P = 0.052). In conclusion, granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis down-regulates the IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in PBMC. The induction of hyporesponsiveness to pro-inflammatory cytokines may be an important factor mediating the clinical effects of granulocyte/macrophage adsorptive apheresis in UC patients.
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