Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis induces apoptosis of neutrophils and release of a novel chemoattractant for desensitization of interleukin-8 response
Objective: Apoptotic cells participate in maintenance of homeostasis of the adaptive immune system. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) performed with an Adacolumn has been shown to have clinical efficacy together with immunomodulatory effects for immune-mediated disorder cases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or psoriatic arthritis. Although induction of apoptosis in neutrophils by GMA has been observed, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Methods: To focus on phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD) that induces apoptotic neutrophils, a comparative study utilizing a GMA-carrier (leukocyte adsorbing carrier for Adacolumn) and yeast particles was performed with in vitro and in vivo examinations. Results: L-selectin was significantly (P = 0.0133) shed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was promoted (P = 0.0019), and apoptosis induction was enhanced (P = 0.0087) by peripheral blood co-cultured with the GMA-carrier or yeast particles as compared to incubated blood alone. Furthermore, degranulation of myeloperoxidase, elastase, and lactoferrin was increased by both treatments, while the highest level of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist release was found with GMA-carrier treatment (P = 0.0087) as compared to the yeast particles. Plasma from blood treated with the GMA-carrier showed chemotactic activity, and suppressed neutrophil migration to IL-8 and LTB4. In vivo results demonstrated that neutrophil chemotaxis to IL-8 was desensitized (P = 0.0078) in rabbits following GMA apheresis, while CXCR1 and CXCR2 expressions in neutrophils were reduced by exposing peripheral blood to the GMA-carrier. Conclusions: GMA may regulate the immune system in patients with an immune-mediated disorder by inducing a biological response of neutrophils with a PICD-like reaction.
Biological Effect of Anaphylatoxin C5a on the Generation of Anti-inflammatory Substances in Leukocyte Adsorption
Biological Effect of Anaphylatoxin C5a on the Generation of Anti-inflammatory Substances in Leukocyte Adsorption. Therap. Apher. Dial. 2009 13(6), 509–514. doi:10.1111/j.1744-9987.2009.00779.x
Anaphylatoxins, which are involved in both pro-inflammatory processes and a variety of anti-inflammatory effects, are produced during granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis. We noticed the anti-inflammatory effects of C5a, the strongest anaphylatoxin, in granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C5a on interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) generation in granulocyte and monocyte adsorption. Peripheral blood containing nafamostat mesilate as an endogenous complement activation inhibitor was divided into four groups: (1) no recombinant C5a added, no contact with cellulose acetate (CA) beads (control group); (2) no C5a added, contact with CA beads; (3) C5a added, no contact with CA beads; and (4) C5a added, contact with CA beads. After incubation, IL-1ra and HGF in plasma were measured. IL-1ra was significantly higher in group 3, in which only C5a was added in the absence of CA beads, compared to groups 2 (P < 0.01) and 4 (P < 0.05). HGF was significantly higher only in group 4, in which C5a was added in the presence of CA beads (P < 0.05), but did not increase in the absence of CA beads. C5a can directly induce IL-1ra generation without the granulocyte and monocyte adsorption stimuli to CA beads, but can synergistically induce HGF generation with the adsorption stimuli, indicating C5a has different effects on IL-1ra and HGF generation.
A multi center study of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis therapy for ulcerative colitis—Clinical efficacy and production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist
Hiroaki Takeda,Yasukuni Suzuki,Yuji Takeda,Shoichi Nishise,Tadahisa Fukui,Shoichiro Fujishima,Tomohiko Orii,Sayaka Otake,Takeshi Sato,Koji Suzuki,Yukiko Nakamuara,Sumio Kawata (2008) J.Clin. Apher. 23, 3; 105-110 https://doi.org/10.1002/jca.20164
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) is a useful strategy for intractable ulcerative colitis, but its mechanisms of therapy is not fully explained. Previously, depleting activated granulocytes and monocytes (GMs) and modifying product of proinflammatory cytokines had been proposed. In addition, activated GMs are releasing anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) that may contribute to the clinical efficacy of GCAP therapy. Hence, to investigate contribution of IL-1ra as well as to confirm clinical efficacy of this therapy based on clinical activity index (CAI), we performed a multicenter study. Twenty-five of 38 (65.8%) patients achieved remission state (CAI ≤ 4) and two of 38 (5.3%) revealed clinical improvement. Almost effective cases significantly decreased CAI even at 3rd session of GCAP. Plasma level of IL-1ra from outflow of the GCAP column at 30 min was significantly increased rather than inflow. Median exact elevated level of IL-1ra was 221 pg/ml and median of increasing ratio was 1.6 times. Furthermore, the responsive patients, who well released the IL-1ra at outflow more than 100 pg/ml compared with inflow, tended to show clinical effectiveness. While, the increased ratio of IL-1ra in effective cases did not differ from ineffective cases, and there were no significant relationship with improvement of CAI score. These conflict results suggest that the increase of IL-1ra at outflow is not a direct factor to the clinical improvement, but the induction of clinical improvement is accompanied by the release of IL-1ra. The IL-1ra may be involved in the multiple steps for the improvement induced by GCAP.
Clinical Response Is Associated with Elevated PlasmaInterleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist During Selective Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis
Kyoya Sakimura · Toshihide Omori · Etsuro Iwashita ·Takeshi Yoshida · Yoshikazu Tsuzuki · Kenji Fujimori ·Fumio Konishi · Yukio Yoshida · Hiroo Anzai ·Hiromichi Suzuki · Souichi Sugawara · Yuji Takeda ·Katsuya Hiraishi · Abbi R. Saniabadi · Tatsuo Ide ·Soichiro Miura · Shinichi Ota
Dig Dis Sci 2006 Sep;51(9):1525-31. doi: 10.1007/s10620-005-9012-1. Epub 2006 Aug 12.
Depletion of granulocytes and monocytes (GM) by selective apheresis (GMA) with an Adacolumn exerts
an anti-inflammatory effect in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanism of the
anti-inflammatory effect of GMA is not fully understood yet. We investigated the effect of GMA on the plasma concentration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. Twenty-six patients with active UC received GMA at one session per week for 5 consecutive weeks. Clinical response was defined as clinical activity index (CAI = CAI at entry – CAI at post) ≥ 4, while clinical remission was defined as CAI ≤ 4. Twenty-one of twenty-six patients (80.8%) responded to GMA. In the first session, plasma from responder patients showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase in IL-1ra in the Adacolumn outflow. In contrast, there was no change in IL-1ra in nonresponders. In conclusion, release of IL-1ra during GMA might be one mechanism of clinical efficacy associated with this therapy.
Adhesion dependent release of hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist from human blood granulocytes and monocytes: Evidence for the involvement of plasma IgG, complement C3 and β2 integrin
Objective: Evolving evidence of anti-inflammatory effects is observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or ulcerative colitis following periodic adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte (GM) apheresis with a column containing cellulose acetate (CA) beads as apheresis carriers. This study was undertaken to obtain insights into mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of adsorptive GM apheresis with CA beads. Methods: In a series of in-vitro experiments, we investigated the effects of plasma proteins and the leucocytes β2 integrin (CD18) on granulocyte adsorption to CA beads. Results: Granulocyte adsorption to CA beads required plasma IgG, the complement C3 and was inhibited by an antibody to leucocytes CD18. Further, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) which have strong anti-inflammatory actions were released by granulocytes that adhered to CA beads. Conclusions: Plasma IgG, C3 derived complement activation fragments and leucocytes CD18 are involved in granulocyte adhesion to CA beads and hence the release of HGF and IL-1ra.
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