Scientific corner

Recommendations for Therapeutic Apheresis by the Section “Preparative and Therapeutic Hemapheresis” of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology

Nina Worel 1Behrouz Mansouri Taleghani 2Erwin Strasser 3 Transfus Med Hemother 2019 Dec;46(6):394-406. doi: 10.1159/000503937. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

The section “Preparative and Therapeutic Hemapheresis” of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI) has reviewed the actual literature and updated techniques and indications for evidence-based use of therapeutic apheresis in human disease. The recommendations are mostly in line with the “Guidelines on the Use of Therapeutic Apheresis in Clinical Practice” published by the Writing Committee of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) and have been conducted by experts from the DACH (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) region.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31933569/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944925/

Scientific corner

GS1-04 The apheresis guidelines for digestive diseases

Kazuaki Inoue, Tomoki Furuya, Yoko Yokoyama

The apheresis guidelines for digestive diseases are divided into the following four fields: acute liver failure (ALF); ascites; acute pancreatitis (AP); inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

IBD: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are the major forms of I BD. Although their etiology is still not fully understood, activated leukocytes are significant factors in their exacerbations. In Japan, granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) and leukocytapheresis (LCAP) are approved for IBD treatment. They are recommended for remission induction in UC
patients with mild-to-moderate activity, whether steroid-resistant or -dependent. Although GMA is recommended for remission induction in colonic type CD refractory to conventional therapy, its efficacy is lower than in UC patients.

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 100-101

http://www.atalacia.com/isfa/data/abstract.pdf

Scientific corner

Management of Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis, Part 1: Ambulatory Care-An Evidence-based Guideline From European Crohn’s and Colitis Organization and European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

Dan Turner 1Frank M Ruemmele 2Esther Orlanski-Meyer 1Anne M Griffiths 3Javier Martin de Carpi  et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 Aug;67(2):257-291. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002035.

Background: The contemporary management of ambulatory ulcerative colitis (UC) continues to be challenging with ∼20% of children needing a colectomy within childhood years. We thus aimed to standardize daily treatment of pediatric UC and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)-unclassified through detailed recommendations and practice points. Methods: These guidelines are a joint effort of the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organization (ECCO) and the Paediatric IBD Porto group of European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). An extensive literature search with subsequent evidence appraisal using robust methodology was performed before 2 face-to-face meetings. All 40 included recommendations and 86 practice points were endorsed by 43 experts in Paediatric IBD with at least an 88% consensus rate. Results: These guidelines discuss how to optimize the use of mesalamine (including topical), systemic and locally active steroids, thiopurines and, for more severe disease, biologics. The use of other emerging therapies and the role of surgery are also covered. Algorithms are provided to aid therapeutic decision-making based on clinical assessment and the Paediatric UC Activity Index (PUCAI). Advice on contemporary therapeutic targets incorporating the use of calprotectin and the role of therapeutic drug monitoring are presented, as well as other management considerations around pouchitis, extraintestinal manifestations, nutrition, growth, psychology, and transition. A brief section on disease classification using the PIBD-classes criteria and IBD-unclassified is also part of these guidelines. Conclusions: These guidelines provide a guide to clinicians managing children with UC and IBD-unclassified management to provide modern management strategies while maintaining vigilance around appropriate outcomes and safety issues.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30044357/

https://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/165387/

Scientific corner

Japanese guidelines for the management and treatment of generalized pustular psoriasis: The new pathogenesis and treatment of GPP.

Hideki Fujita 1Tadashi Terui 1Koremasa Hayama 1Masashi Akiyama 2Shigaku Ikeda 3Tomotaka Mabuchi 4Akira Ozawa 4Takuro Kanekura 5Michiko Kurosawa 6Mayumi Komine 7Kimiko Nakajima 8Shigetoshi Sano 8Osamu Nemoto 9Masahiko Muto 10Yasutomo Imai 11Kiyofumi Yamanishi 11Yumi Aoyama 12Keiji Iwatsuki 13, J Dermatol . 2018 Nov;45(11):1235-1270. 

 The aim of the guidelines was to provide current information to aid in the treatment of patients with GPP in Japan. Its contents include the diagnostic and severity classification criteria for GPP, its pathogenesis, and recommendations for the treatment of GPP.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30230572/

Scientific corner

Pouchitis: a practical guide

A Hillary Steinhart Ofer Ben-Bassat Frontline Gastroenterol 2013 Jul;4(3):198-204. doi: 10.1136/flgastro-2012-100171. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

Up to 30% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) will require surgical management. The established surgical procedure of choice is colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for most patients. Patients with UC who have undergone IPAA are prone to develop inflammatory and non-inflammatory complications. Up to 50% of patients can be expected to experience at least one episode of pouchitis, and most of these patients will experience at least one additional acute episode within 2 years. In other cases, pouchitis might follow a relapsing-remitting course or a chronically active course. The specific aetiology of pouchitis is unknown and the optimal means of diagnosis and classification of pouchitis is not completely agreed upon. Diagnosis of pouchitis based on symptoms alone has been shown to be non-specific due to the fact that symptoms can originate from a myriad of aetiologies, not necessarily inflammatory in nature. As a result, the diagnosis of pouchitis should generally be based on the appropriate constellation of symptoms, combined with endoscopic and histological assessment. Due to the frequently relapsing course of pouchitis, and the fact that the aetiology and pathogenesis are not entirely clear, the long-term management can sometimes be challenging. This review outlines the features suggestive of deviation from ‘normal’ pouch function and provides an approach to the optimal use of diagnostic modalities and medical therapies to treat pouchitis in its various forms.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28839726/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5369791/

Scientific corner

Therapeutic landscape for ulcerative colitis: where is the Adacolumn(®) system and where should it be?

Maurizio Vecchi 1Piero VerniaGabriele RieglerRenata D’IncàVito AnneseSiro Bagnoli, Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2013;6:1-7.

Granulocyte-monocyte apheresis is a relatively new therapy that has been proposed, sometimes with controversial results, for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, particularly ulcerative colitis. The aim of the present study was to perform a thorough review of the literature on the application of this type of treatment in ulcerative colitis and discuss the results, in order to provide an opinion on its use which is shared by the involved experts. The review of the literature was performed by searching PubMed with appropriate key words. The results obtained suggest that the major role for this treatment at this moment is for those patients with steroid dependency or with major contraindications to use of steroids. However, promising, albeit very preliminary, results have also been observed in steroid-naïve subjects, and this is of particular interest in consideration of the safety profile of this therapeutic method. As such, the Adacolumn may prove useful in specific subgroups of patients. Future phenotypic, genotypic, and molecular characterization of patients with inflammatory bowel disease might prove useful in defining better those subjects who might benefit most from this treatment modality.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23323022/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3541711/pdf/ceg-6-001.pdf

Scientific corner

The Asia-Pacific consensus on ulcerative colitis

Choon Jin Ooi 1Kwong Ming FockGovind K MakhariaKhean Lee GohKhoon Lin LingIda HilmiWee Chian LimThia KelvinPeter R GibsonRichard B GearryQin OuyangJose SollanoSathaporn ManatsathitRungsun RerknimitrShu-Chen WeiWai Keung LeungH Janaka de SilvaRupert Wl LeongAsia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010 Mar;25(3):453-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06241.x.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in many parts of the Asia-Pacific region. There is a need to improve the awareness of IBD and develop diagnostic and management recommendations relevant to the region. This evidence-based consensus focuses on the definition, epidemiology and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) in Asia. A multi-disciplinary group developed the consensus statements, reviewed the relevant literature, and voted on them anonymously using the Delphi method. The finalized statements were reviewed to determine the level of consensus, evidence quality and strength of recommendation. Infectious colitis must be excluded prior to diagnosing UC. Typical histology and macroscopic extent of the disease seen in the West is found in the Asia-Pacific region. Ulcerative colitis is increasing in many parts of Asia with gender distribution and age of diagnosis similar to the West. Extra-intestinal manifestations including primary sclerosing cholangitis are rarer than in the West. Clinical stratification of disease severity guides management. In Japan, leukocytapheresis is a treatment option. Access to biologic agents remains limited due to high cost and concern over opportunistic infections. The high endemic rates of hepatitis B virus infection require stringent screening before initiating immune-suppressive agents. Vaccination and prophylactic therapies should be initiated on a case-by-case basis and in accordance with local practice. Colorectal cancer complicates chronic colitis. A recent increase in UC is reported in the Asia-Pacific region. These consensus statements aim to improve the recognition of UC and assist clinicians in its management with particular relevance to the region.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20370724/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06241.x

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