Scientific corner

Targeting neutrophils in inflammatory bowel disease: revisiting the role of adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis

Giorgos Bamias 1Evanthia Zampeli 2Eugeni Domènech 3 Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol  2022 Jul 19;1-15. doi: 10.1080/17474124.2022.2100759.

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). While any part of the digestive tract can be affected in CD, mucosal inflammation in UC is limited to the colon. Differences and similarities between the two conditions are reflected by their pathophysiology. Areas covered: An overview of immunological aspects, pharmacological management, and biomarkers of IBD is provided. The role of adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) is reviewed including its primary and secondary effects on the immune system, as well as clinical studies in IBD (mainly UC), and potential biomarkers for adsorptive GMA. Expert opinion: In UC, adsorptive GMA with Adacolumn (Adacolumn®, JIMRO Co., Ltd. Takasaki, Gunma, Japan) selectively depletes elevated myeloid lineage leukocytes and has a range of beneficial secondary immune effects. Adsorptive GMA is a safe and effective non-pharmacological treatment option for UC. Pilot studies have reported promising results for adsorptive GMA in combination with biological agents, although larger studies are required. Fecal calprotectin concentrations, neutrophil counts in histological samples and/or the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood may prove to be useful biomarkers for predicting GMA effectiveness in the future.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35833363/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/epub/10.1080/17474124.2022.2100759?needAccess=true

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Induction of mucosal healing by intensive granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) without use of corticosteroids in patients with ulcerative colitis: long-term remission maintenance after induction by GMA and efficacy of GMA re-treatment upon relapse

Takumi Fukuchi Kousaku Kawashima Hideaki Koga Ran UtsunomiyaKohei Sugiyama Keiji Shimazu Takaaki Eguchi Shunji Ishihara J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2022 Mar;70(2):197-204. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.21-112. Epub 2021 Dec 25.

This study examined the long-term maintenance rate after inducing remission by intensive granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) without use of corticosteroids (CS) and GMA re-treatment efficacy in the same patients upon relapse with ulcerative colitis. Patients who achieved clinical remission and mucosal healing (MH) by first-time intensive GMA (first GMA) without CS were enrolled. The cumulative non-relapse survival rate up to week 156 was calculated. Patients with relapse during the maintenance period underwent second-time intensive GMA (second GMA) without CS. Clinical remission and MH rates following second GMA were compared to those following first GMA in the same patients. Of the 84 patients enrolled, 78 were followed until week 156 and 34 demonstrated relapse. The cumulative non-relapse survival rate by week 156 was 56.4%. Clinical remission and MH rates after second GMA did not differ from those after first GMA in the same patients (week 6: clinical remission, 100% vs 88.4%, p = 0.134; MH, 100% vs 84.8%, p = 0.074). In conclusion, MH induction by intensive GMA without use of CS in ulcerative colitis patients contributes to subsequent long-term clinical remission maintenance. GMA re-treatment efficacy was comparable to that of first GMA in the same patients who had relapse.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35400813/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8921725/

Scientific corner

Efficacy of cytapheresis for induction therapy and extra-intestinal skin manifestations of ulcerative colitis

Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Osamu Nomura,Kei Nomura,Mayuko Haraikawa,Keiichi Haga,Dai Ishikawa,Taro Osada,Ken Yamaji,Shigaku Ikeda,Akihito Nagahara

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Mar 5. doi: 10.1111/1744-9987.13823. Online ahead of print.

Introduction: In recent years, the prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases has been increasing in Japan due to the westernization of lifestyles. Many patients have been reported to have extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) at least once. Skin lesions occur with a high degree of frequency among EIMs, with erythema nodosum (EN) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) the main complications. Cytapheresis is again attracting attention as a treatment with few side effects. Methods: We investigated the therapeutic effect of cytapheresis on ulcerative colitis (UC) and cutaneous EIMs. Between 2008 and 2021, 240 patients with active UC had induction therapy by cytapheresis at our hospital. Results: Remission and response rates were 50.0% and 67.5%, respectively. Apheresis was performed on seven patients with PG and five patients with EN with a good response. Serious adverse events were not observed. Conclusion: This retrospective assessment of efficacy showed that EN and PG responded favorably to cytapheresis.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35247233/

Scientific corner

Granulocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis (in Spanish)

Gerardo Prieto Bozano an. pedatr. contin.2012;10(5):286-9

  • Existen 2 dispositivos de granulocitoféresis: Cellsorba® (fibras de poliéster no tejidas), que fija granulocitos y linfocitos, y Adacolumn® (acetato de celulosa) que fija selectivamente granulocitos y monocitos.
  • Además de retirar leucocitos activados, la aféresis produce incremento del número de granulocitos CD10-negativos (inmaduros), disminución de citocinas proinflamatorias (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa [TNF-α], interleucina [IL-6],IL-8 e IL-1β) e incremento de citocinas inhibitorias (IL-1, IL-10)
  • La granulocitoféresis es un método razonablemente eficaz y seguro para obtener la remisión en niños con colitis ulcerosa corticodependiente o resistente, sobre todo en pacientes en el primer episodio, en enfermedad de corta evolución y en aquellos que no han recibido esteroides
  • El procedimiento requiere 2 accesos venosos de buen flujo. La pauta más habitual de tratamiento consiste en 1–2 sesiones semanales de 60min a un flujo de 30ml/min, hasta un total de 5–10 sesiones

https://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-anales-pediatria-continuada-51-articulo-granulocitoferesis-colitis-ulcerosa-S1696281812701002

Scientific corner

Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comprehensive Review

Zhaobei Cai 1 2Shu Wang 3Jiannan Li 1 Front Med (Lausanne)  2021 Dec 20;8:765474. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.765474. eCollection 2021.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as a global disease, has attracted much research interest. Constant research has led to a better understanding of the disease condition and further promoted its management. We here reviewed the conventional and the novel drugs and therapies, as well as the potential ones, which have shown promise in preclinical studies and are likely to be effective future therapies. The conventional treatments aim at controlling symptoms through pharmacotherapy, including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, with other general measures and/or surgical resection if necessary. However, a considerable fraction of patients do not respond to available treatments or lose response, which calls for new therapeutic strategies. Diverse therapeutic options are emerging, involving small molecules, apheresis therapy, improved intestinal microecology, cell therapy, and exosome therapy. In addition, patient education partly upgrades the efficacy of IBD treatment. Recent advances in the management of IBD have led to a paradigm shift in the treatment goals, from targeting symptom-free daily life to shooting for mucosal healing. In this review, the latest progress in IBD treatment is summarized to understand the advantages, pitfalls, and research prospects of different drugs and therapies and to provide a basis for the clinical decision and further research of IBD.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34988090/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8720971/

Scientific corner

Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis for pyoderma gangrenosum

Yuko Higashi,Atsuko Ibusuki,Naoko Baba,Miho Hatanaka,Ko-Ichi Tada,Takuro Kanekura, therapeutic apheresis and dialysis  First published: 09 August 2021

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), a chronic aseptic inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin ulcers with elevated and undermined borders, is resistant to conventional therapies. PG is elicited by activated neutrophils and macrophages and is often associated with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, aortitis syndrome, and hematopoietic disorders. This single-center study assessed the efficacy and safety of selectively depleting myeloid-lineage leukocytes in patients with PG. Patients with PG, aged 20 or over, received 5 or 10 treatment sessions of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA), once or twice a week. Treatment efficacy was assessed based on the rate of skin ulcer reduction, the visual analog scale of pain, and the physician’s global assessment of the skin lesions. A complete response (CR) was obtained in eight patients, a nearly complete response (nCR) in three patients, and a partial response (PR) in two patients. In four of the other six, the disease remained stable (SD) and in two we observed disease progression (PD). No severe adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that GMA is a useful and safe treatment modality for PG.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1744-9987.13720

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Concomitant granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis accelerates clinical efficacy and mucosal healing of colonic lesions in patients with active Crohn’s disease

S. Yasukawa*, F. Hirai, Y. Takada, Y. Yano Fukuoka University Chikushi , Department of Gastroenterology, Chikushino, Japan

Concomitant GMA not only improved clinical outcome but also benefited treatment of colonic mucosal lesions in
patients with CD who showed resistance to other treatments.

P560. Concomitant granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis accelerates clinical efficacy and mucosal healing of colonic lesions in patients with active Crohn’s disease (silverchair.com)

Scientific corner

Cellular immune response triggered by granulocytoapheresis in ulcerative colitis patients under biological treatment

UEG WEEK VIRTUAL 2021

GMA induces specific immunoregulatory changes in leukocyte’s subpopulations. We confirm the depletion of the
monocytes with proinflammatory phenotype after GMA. Treg and B effector cells shift to a more immunotolerant phenotype. The emergence of subpopulations with the atypical immunofluorescence staining (CXCR3+CRTH2+) related to immature T cells support the immunomodulatory effects of GMA. These findings could help to understand the pathology of UC and to identify targeted immune subpopulations for treatment

P0246 UEG.pdf

Scientific corner

The combined efficacy of adalimumab with GMA method on the treatment of ulcerative colitis and repair of intestinal mucosal lesion

Ailing Song, Hai Jiang, Liang Guo, Shanshan Wu, Am J Transl Res 2021;13(5):5156-5164

Objectives: The study discussed and analyzed the combined efficacy of adalimumab with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) method on patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and the repair of intestinal mucosal lesion. Methods: 60 UC patients in moderate-to-severe active phase that hospitalized from January 2017 to March 2020 were chosen and randomly classified into observation group (n=30) and control group (n=30). The control-group patients received GMA treatment, and the observation-group patients received combination therapy of GMA and adalimumab. The therapeutic efficacy, laboratory indicators, changes of serum inflammatory factors, and intestinal mucosal barrier impairment in two sets of participants were compared. Results: The comprehensive effective rate of clinical treatment was remarkably higher in observation group than that in control group (P<0.05). CRP and ESR of the two groups in post- treatment were notably lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), while Hb and ALB in post-treatment increased significantly than in pre-intervention (P<0.05); CRP in observation group after treatment was remarkably lower than that in control group (P<0.05), while no significant difference was noticed in ESR, ALB and Hb between the two groups (P>0.05). The serum inflammatory factors in observation group in post-treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The scores of PCT, DAO and intestinal mucosa in two sets of participants in post-treatment were dramatically lower than those in pre-treatment (P<0.05), and the scores in observation group after treatment were notably lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The combined efficacy of adalimumab with GMA on UC patients can improve the clinical curative efficacy, effectively reduce the inflammatory factors, which is beneficial to the repair of intestinal mucosal barrier function, and worthy of clinical application.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34150104/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205815/pdf/ajtr0013-5156.pdf

Scientific corner

Use of granulocyte/monocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis: A practical review from a European perspective

Eugeni DomènechJoan-Ramon GrífolsAyesha Akbar, and Axel U Dignass World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Mar 14; 27(10): 908–918.

GMA is the only available therapy for UC directly targeting neutrophils. Two controlled, multicentre, European studies and a number of recent cases series found a potential therapeutic benefit of GMA in different clinical scenarios of UC with a still unmet need for optimal treatment. Moreover, GMA has an excellent safety profile and is perceived as a convenient procedure by patients, making this non-pharmacological therapy a suitable alternative or add-on therapy in UC, particularly for frail or comorbid patients.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968132/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968132/pdf/WJG-27-908.pdf

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