Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis as an effective treatment for Reiter disease
Reiter disease (RD) is characterized by a triad of sterile arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. The conditions occur concomitantly or sequentially, and are associated with mucocutaneous features such as circinate balanitis and stomatitis. Arthritis usually occurs in attacks followed by recovery, but it sometimes progresses to permanent damage of the affected joints. Because the symptoms of this disorder are attributable to activated neutrophils, we assessed the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) in a 73-year-old man with RD who had skin rashes on his penis, scrotum and right hand, with severe arthralgia. The patient’s skin rash and joint pain responded dramatically to five sessions of GCAP delivered at intervals of 5 days. We present a detailed description of the patient and discuss the mechanisms of GCAP, and suggest that GCAP may be useful for treating RD.
Generalized pustular psoriasis successfully treated with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis
Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is one of the neutrophilic dermatoses mainly caused by activated neutrophils and monocytes. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) is a useful extracorporeal circulation therapy for removal of activated granulocytes and monocytes. In this study, GCAP was used to treat three patients with different types of GPP; the diagnoses indicated patient 1 had GPP, patient 2 had GPP developed from psoriasis vulgaris and patient 3 had GPP based on psoriatic erythroderma. We performed GCAP on each of these patients once a week, for a total of five times. We found that the patients’ pustules and edema disappeared and their erythema was reduced by GCAP therapy. Moreover, no adverse effects were observed. Thus, we conclude GCAP could be effective for treating various types of GPP.
Efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for pustular psoriasis
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) has recently shown remarkable effects on ulcerative colitis, which is characterized by inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. Pustular psoriasis often shows histological findings of neutrophilic pustules in the epidermis, and in Japan is usually treated with etretinate or immunosuppressive agents. However, there are some resistant cases to these therapies. We performed GCAP on one patient with generalized pustular psoriasis (patient 1) and on one patient with acrodermatitis continua, a subtype of pustular psoriasis limited to acral lesions (patient 2). Patient 1, a 44-year-old woman suffering from alcoholic liver cirrhosis and osteoporosis as a result of the liver cirrhosis, received two GCAP sessions because cyclosporine was ineffective. Patient 2, a 66-year-old man with hypertension who had suffered from a brain infarction 4 years before, had five GCAP sessions because etretinate was ineffective. GCAP remarkably improved the skin lesions in both patients. No adverse effects were observed either during or after treatment. From these findings, GCAP could be an effective therapy for refractory cases of pustular psoriasis.
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for cutaneous allergic vasculitis
Cutaneous allergic vasculitis (CAV) is characterized clinically by purpuric patches with secondary ulcerations, and histologically by leukocytoclastic vasculitis with neutrophil infiltrates. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) is an extracorporeal apheresis instrument using a column containing cellulose acetate beads designed to remove pathogenic granulocytes. Here we report our assessment of the efficacy of GCAP for recurrent leg ulcers in a 49-year-old woman with CAV. She underwent five GCAP treatments at one-week intervals. In each treatment session, 1800 mL of blood was processed. Her leg ulcers responded well and her white blood cell and neutrophil counts and the expression level of CD11b/CD18, a marker for activated neutrophils, on her peripheral neutrophils were reduced from 7500/microL to 6500/microL, 4350/microL to 3315/microL, and 64.9 MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) to 27.0 MFI (normal controls: 10.5 +/- 1.2 MFI) by GCAP, respectively. These results suggest that GCAP is useful for skin disorders with leucocytoclastic vasculitis.
Treatment of Pyoderma Gangrenosum With Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis
Pyoderma gangrenosum is an intractable skin disorder characterized by the development of erythematous pustules or nodules that rapidly progress to destructive, necrotizing, non-infective ulcers. We assessed the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) therapy in two new patients, a 67-year-old man with ulcerations on his lower leg, and a 44-year-old man with turgid erythematous lesions with burrowing abscesses and sinus formation on his hip, groin, and thighs. Both patients received 10 GCAP treatments at 5-day intervals. Their skin lesions responded well. The 9 cmx6 cm ulcer on the lower right leg of the 67-year-old patient was completely covered by regenerated skin at the completion of therapy. The turgid skin lesions containing pustules and ulcers of the other patient showed amelioration and a marked decrease in the volume of exudate. Our results suggest that GCAP is a useful treatment modality for pyoderma gangrenosum.
Treatment of psoriatic arthritis with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) is a new extracorporeal apheresis treatment modality that removes pathogenic granulocytes. Recently, we found that GCAP is useful for treating pyoderma gangrenosum and pustular psoriasis. We thought that this treatment may also be effective for treating other disorders attributable to activated granulocytes and studied the efficacy of GCAP in 4 patients with psoriatic arthritis. Treatment with GCAP resulted in remarkable clearing of joint pain, suggesting that GCAP is valuable for treating arthritis as well as skin disorders. We present a detailed description of these patients and this novel therapy.
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