A case of ulcerative colitis-related postoperative enteritis treated with granulocyte and monocyte apheresis
A 46-year-old man, receiving continuous steroid therapy for refractory ulcerative colitis with an insufficient response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, presented with left buttock pain. He was diagnosed with steroidal left femoral head necrosis, and total proctocolectomy with permanent ileostomy was performed. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient developed general fatigue, abdominal pain, and severe ileostomy diarrhea. Computed tomography revealed continuous intestinal edema from the descending duodenal leg to the upper jejunum. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed deep ulcers, coarse mucosa, and duodenal erosion. Based on clinical progress, findings, and pathology, the patient was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis-related postoperative enteritis. Although 5-aminosalicylic acid treatment was initiated, his symptoms persisted, bloody diarrhea from colostomy was observed. Subsequently, granulocyte and monocyte apheresis treatment was added. Symptoms and endoscopic findings improved with granulocyte and monocyte apheresis. Azathioprine was introduced as maintenance therapy, and no sign of recurrence was observed. Although ulcerative colitis-related postoperative enteritis has no definitive treatment, granulocyte and monocyte apheresis may be considered for initial treatment.
Cellular immune response triggered by granulocytoapheresis in ulcerative colitis patients under biological treatment
UEG WEEK VIRTUAL 2021
GMA induces specific immunoregulatory changes in leukocyte’s subpopulations. We confirm the depletion of the
monocytes with proinflammatory phenotype after GMA. Treg and B effector cells shift to a more immunotolerant phenotype. The emergence of subpopulations with the atypical immunofluorescence staining (CXCR3+CRTH2+) related to immature T cells support the immunomodulatory effects of GMA. These findings could help to understand the pathology of UC and to identify targeted immune subpopulations for treatment
The combined efficacy of adalimumab with GMA method on the treatment of ulcerative colitis and repair of intestinal mucosal lesion
Ailing Song, Hai Jiang, Liang Guo, Shanshan Wu, Am J Transl Res 2021;13(5):5156-5164
Objectives: The study discussed and analyzed the combined efficacy of adalimumab with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) method on patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and the repair of intestinal mucosal lesion. Methods: 60 UC patients in moderate-to-severe active phase that hospitalized from January 2017 to March 2020 were chosen and randomly classified into observation group (n=30) and control group (n=30). The control-group patients received GMA treatment, and the observation-group patients received combination therapy of GMA and adalimumab. The therapeutic efficacy, laboratory indicators, changes of serum inflammatory factors, and intestinal mucosal barrier impairment in two sets of participants were compared. Results: The comprehensive effective rate of clinical treatment was remarkably higher in observation group than that in control group (P<0.05). CRP and ESR of the two groups in post- treatment were notably lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), while Hb and ALB in post-treatment increased significantly than in pre-intervention (P<0.05); CRP in observation group after treatment was remarkably lower than that in control group (P<0.05), while no significant difference was noticed in ESR, ALB and Hb between the two groups (P>0.05). The serum inflammatory factors in observation group in post-treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The scores of PCT, DAO and intestinal mucosa in two sets of participants in post-treatment were dramatically lower than those in pre-treatment (P<0.05), and the scores in observation group after treatment were notably lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The combined efficacy of adalimumab with GMA on UC patients can improve the clinical curative efficacy, effectively reduce the inflammatory factors, which is beneficial to the repair of intestinal mucosal barrier function, and worthy of clinical application.
Use of granulocyte/monocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis: A practical review from a European perspective
GMA is the only available therapy for UC directly targeting neutrophils. Two controlled, multicentre, European studies and a number of recent cases series found a potential therapeutic benefit of GMA in different clinical scenarios of UC with a still unmet need for optimal treatment. Moreover, GMA has an excellent safety profile and is perceived as a convenient procedure by patients, making this non-pharmacological therapy a suitable alternative or add-on therapy in UC, particularly for frail or comorbid patients.
Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis therapy for patients with active ulcerative colitis associated with COVID-19
Miki Koroku 1, Teppei Omori 1, Harutaka Kambayashi 1, Shun Murasugi 1, Tomoko Kuriyama 1, Yuichi Ikarashi 1, Maria Yonezawa 1, Ken Arimura 2, Kazunori Karasawa 3, Norio Hanafusa 4, Masatoshi Kawana 5, Katsutoshi Tokushige 1 Intest Res. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.5217/ir.2020.00148.
In conclusion, our patient’s case indicates that GMA for a patient with both active UC and COVID-19 is a safe treatment option for active UC that could lead other patients in this condition to remission.
Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis for Ulcerative Colitis in a Patient with Low Bone Mineral Density Due to Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome
In conclusion, our experience with the current case suggests that GMA may be useful as remission induction therapy for patients with underlying disorders who have a low
BMD and who cannot be treated with steroids. We recommend further investigations be conducted to establish a detailed consensus concerning the appropriate timing and patient selection for GMA therapy
Adsorptive granulomonocytapheresis alters the gut bacterial microbiota in patients with active ulcerative colitis
Active UC is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. GMA therapy exerts a strong regulatory effect on the gut microbiota in patients with UC.
Cytapheresis re-induces high-rate steroid-free remission in patients with steroid-dependent and steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis
Our results suggest that CAP effectively induces and maintains steroid-free remission in refractory UC and re-induces steroid-free remission in patients achieving steroid-free remission after the first course of CAP.
Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis as an adjunctive therapy to induce and maintain clinical remission in ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta analysis
The results support the hypothesis that patients with active UC have a better chance of clinical remission if GMA is administered as an adjunctive therapy. As regards the frequency of AEs, we found no statistically significant difference between the two groups. With regard to remission maintenance, GMA was identified as an effective alternative therapeutic option
Chronic Antibiotic-Refractory Pouchitis: Management Challenges
Pouchitis can be suspected based on clinical symptoms and laboratory findings, but should be confirmed with endoscopy and histology. Clear definitions should be used to classify pouchitis into acute versus chronic, and responsive versus dependent versus refractory to antibiotics. Before treatment is started for chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis, secondary causes should be ruled out. Also, scoring the disease, taking into account the quality of life of the patient, should guide you in choosing the best treatment option for your patient.
Managing patients with chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis remains a challenge for the treating gastroenterologist or abdominal surgeon. Because chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis is mainly immune mediated, therapeutic options are similar to the treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases. Treatments with antibiotics, aminosalicylates, steroids, immunomodulators and biologics has been shown to be effective for chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis. Also, treatments with AST-120, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, tacrolimus enemas, and granulocyte and monocyte apheresis suggested some efficacy. The available data are weak but suggest that therapeutic options for chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis are similar to the treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases. However, randomized controlled trials are warranted to further identify the best treatment options in this patient population.
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