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A case of severe generalized pustular psoriasis successfully treated with IL-17A monoclonal antibody and granulocyte removal therapy

Keiki ShimadaDaisuke KatagiriAika KatoNaoto NunoseMotohiko SatoYuri KatayamaKanako TerakawaTakahito NiikuraEmi SakamotoYuki YoshizakiMinami SuzukiTakashi FukayaTakeshi Tamaki & Hideki Takano Ren Replace Ther 8, 50 (2022).

Background Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) usually presents with fever, generalized flushing, and multiple sterile pustules on the skin, which histopathologically form subcorneal pustules characterized by Kogoj spongiform pustules. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) was approved in Japan in 2012. The use of biologics for psoriasis treatment is increasing. Several case reports have evaluated the combination of GMA and cyclosporine (CyA) for GPP. However, very few English reports on combining biologics and GMA in treating GPP exist. Case presentation A 79-year-old man with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and atrial fibrillation was admitted. He had been consulting a dermatologist for psoriasis vulgaris (PV) since the age of 44. The patient was diagnosed with severe GPP and treated with 300 mg secukinumab (SEC) on day 3. SEC is a fully human monoclonal IgG1 antibody that targets IL-17A. Five doses were administered. In addition, GMA was administered once a week, three times from day 4. After the first administration of GMA, the inflammatory response and skin condition improved markedly. The patient was discharged from the hospital on day 34. Conclusions The present study is the first English-written report on the combined administration of SEC and GMA both instituted since admission for severe GPP, with immediate patient response to treatment. Notably, IL-17A plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of GPP. GMA can eliminate activated leukocytes, and the early introduction of combined IL-17 monoclonal antibody and GMA may allow disease suppression in patients with severe GPP, thus avoiding progression to multiorgan failure. Further studies may verify the effects of IL-17 monoclonal antibodies and GMA on severe GPP.

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A real-world, single-center experience and the immediate impact of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis on generalized pustular psoriasis

Hideaki Uchida 1Masahiro Kamata 2Shota Egawa 1Mayumi Nagata 1Saki Fukaya 1Kotaro Hayashi 1Atsuko Fukuyasu 1Takamitsu Tanaka 1Takeko Ishikawa 1Takamitsu Ohnishi 1Kazumitsu Sugiura 3Yayoi Tada 

J Am Acad Dermatol 2022 Nov;87(5):1181-1184. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.03.001. 

Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal circulation therapy that removes activated granulocytes and monocytes, which can be easily introduced in clinics and hospitals where hemodialysis is performed. Its safety profile  allows for its administration without screening and for its concomitant use with other therapies, indicating that GMA can be a good additional option for GPP treatment. However, the evidence for its efficacy and safety is limited because of the rarity of GPP. Furthermore, its immediate impact on GPP has not been assessed yet. Therefore, we report our real-world experience of 14 patients with GPP treated with GMA after systemic treatment.GMA can be administered with other systemic therapies, including biologics and conventional therapy (objective A). Furthermore, its good safety profile allows GMA administration to a wide range of patients, including elderly patients and those with complications, possible active infection, or malignancy (objectives B and C). Moreover, our study revealed an immediate significant improvement in BT, accompanied by slight decreases in the WBC count and CRP level, indicating that GMA contributes to the rapid suppression of acute inflammation in patients with GPP.

A real-world, single-center experience and the immediate impact of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis on generalized pustular psoriasis – PubMed (

A real-world, single-center experience and the immediate impact of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis on generalized pustular psoriasis – Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (

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S-05-05 Efficacy and safety of cytapheresis in elderly patients with ulcerative colitis (poster)


Remission induction was more challenging in elderly UC patients. However, CAP was safe and effective for remission induction as a non-pharmacological treatment, even in elderly UC patients, after the incorporation of practical measures. Optimized and contrived CAP is still useful as the sole or concomitant treatment.

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Effectiveness of Cytapheresis for Ulcerative Colitis in Special Situations: Delayed Onset of Optimum Efficacy in Elderly Patients

Tomoyoshi Shibuya 1Osamu Nomura 2Kei Nomura 2Koki Okahara 2Keiichi Haga 2Dai Ishikawa 2Naoto Sakamoto 2Tatsuo Ogihara 2Taro Osada 2Akihito Nagahara 2 , Digestion, 2020;101(1):46-52. 

Unlike pharmacologicals, the efficacy of Cytapheresis appears to be time dependent. Accordingly, in the elderly, we observed a delayed response, indicating that elderly patients may respond beyond the end of Cytapheresis therapy. Therefore, patients who do not show efficacy at the end of Cytapheresis therapy should be followed up for delayed response. Further, Cytapheresis is favored by patients for its good safety profile.

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PP2-06 Efficacy and safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis in elderly vs. non-elderly patients with ulcerative colitis

poster at ISFA 2019 pag 155

We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis (GMA) therapy between 15 elderly patients vs. 19 non-elderly patients with ulcerative colitis. While the remission rates and response rates in non-elderly patients were 33.3% and 94.4%, these rates were 40.0% and 93.3% in elderly patients. There were no significant differences in the 1-year relapse-free rates between elderly and non-elderly patients (71.4% and 50.0%, respectively, P=0.453). These results suggest that GMA therapy is an efficient and safe treatment in elderly patients with ulcerative colitis.

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The combination of granulocyte-monocyte apheresis and vedolizumab: A new treatment option for ulcerative colitis?

Iago Rodríguez-Lago 1 2José M Benítez 3 4Laura Sempere 5Esteban Sáez-González 6Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta 7Jone O de Zárate 8José L Cabriada 1 2 , J Clin Apher 2019 Dec;34(6):680-685.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of combining granulocyte-monocyte apheresis (GMA) and vedolizumab (VDZ) in patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: This retrospective, multicentre pilot study included all UC patients receiving both GMA and VDZ. We recorded data on GMA sessions, demographic characteristics, and clinical response. Effectiveness was assessed 1 and 6 months after finishing the GMA using the partial Mayo score, C-reactive protein, and fecal calprotectin levels. Data were also compiled on VDZ intensification, use of new immunomodulators and colectomy during follow-up. Results: Eight patients were included (mean age 46 years; 63% female; mean disease duration, 132 months; 50% E3). GMA was started after a loss of response to VDZ in all cases (25% primary nonresponse and 75% secondary loss of response). All had previously received anti-TNF agents. VDZ was prescribed as the second-, third-, or fourth-line biologic in 37%, 50%, and 13% of cases, respectively. Patients had a mean baseline partial Mayo score of 7.5 (SD 2.1) and received a median of 15 GMA sessions (range 5-38). After a median follow-up of 7.5 months (IQR 5-12), partial Mayo score decreased after 1 and 6 months (P = .01 and .06, respectively). Three patients (38%) achieved steroid-free clinical remission and five (63%) withdrew VDZ. Colectomy rate was 38%. No adverse events were observed during the combination therapy. Conclusions: This small case series suggests that combining GMA with VDZ could be a treatment option in selected cases of UC with an inadequate response to this biologic agent.

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Shorter Relapse-Free Period after Leukocyte Removal Therapy in Younger than Older Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Satoko Yamasaki 1Yasuhisa Sakata 2Hisako Yoshida 3Sinpei Shirai 1Yuichiro Tanaka 1Ryo Nakano 1Takahiro Yukimoto 1Nanae Tsuruoka 1Ryo Shimoda 1Makoto Fukuda 1Motoaki Miyazono 1Yuji Ikeda 1Ryuichi Iwakiri 1Keizo Anzai 1Kazuma Fujimoto 1 , Digestion. 2019;100(4):247-253.

Background: Leukocyte removal therapy (LRT) is an effective treatment for active ulcerative colitis (UC). The present study was performed to evaluate the relapse-free period after LRT and identify risk factors for relapse. Methods: In total, 94 patients who underwent first-time LRT for remission of moderate to severe UC from April 2004 to March 2016 were enrolled in the present study. The patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments: leukocytapheresis (LCAP; n = 43) or granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage adsorptive apheresis (GMA; n = 51). The 5-year cumulative relapse-free rate and risk factors for relapse were evaluated. Results: The therapeutic response rate was 82% for GMA and 70% for LCAP without a statistically significant difference. The 5-year relapse-free rate was 34.7% in the LRT group. The 5-year relapse-free rate in patients aged > 40 years was 49.9%, which was significantly higher than that in patients aged ≤40 years (22.9%, p < 0.01). The relapse-free period was longer in the older than younger patients. The relapse-free period was longer in the ≥40- than <40-year-old patients (1,197 vs. 441 days, respectively; p = 0.03). Conclusions: The relapse-free period after LRT was examined in patients with UC, and 34.7% of patients achieved clinical remission within a 5-year period. The risk factor for early relapse after LRT was younger age. In conclusion, LRT might be a therapeutic option for maintenance of remission in patients with UC, especially patients aged ≥40 years.

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Tu1711 – Safety and Effectiveness of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in 125 Elderly Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Multicenter Cohort Study

Hiroki Tanaka, Satoshi Motoya, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Satoshi Tanida, Seiichiro Kokuma, Eiji Hosoi Gastroenterology 2018 154 (6) Suppl.S-996–S-997

Background: There are few studies on the usefulness of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) in elderly patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated the safety and effectiveness of GMA in elderly patients who participated in the Post-marketing Surveillance Study of GMA Using Adacolumn® for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Who Have Special Situations (PARTICULAR). Methods: The PARTICULAR study is a retrospective, multicenter cohort study that included patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) who received GMA between November 2013 and March 2017. Patients with at least one special situation, including elderly patients, patients with anemia, and patients undergoing concomitant treatment with multiple immunosuppressants (IMs) were enrolled. Patients aged # 64 years were excluded from this study. GMA was performed using Adacolumn® (JIMRO, Takasaki, Japan). Each patient received up to a maximum of 11 GMA sessions. The safety of GMA was assessed in all patients. The effectiveness of GMA was assessed in patients with UC with a partial UC disease activity index (pUC-DAI) score of $ 3. Remission was defined as a pUC-DAI score of # 2. Patients receiving concomitant treatment with infliximab, adalimumab, or calcineurin inhibitors were excluded from the effectiveness assessment. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) and remission rates were compared between elderly patients with and without any special situation using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 125 elderly patients (118 UC, 7 CD) from 93 institutions were included. The median age was 73.2 years. Fifty-six patients did not have any special situation, and 69 had at least one or more special situations. The incidence of AEs was 11.2% in all patients. The incidence of AEs was significantly lower in elderly patients without any special situation (3.6%) than in those with at least one or more special situations (17.4%) (Figure 1A). AEs significantly occurred in elderly patients with anemia (21.9%) and on multiple concomitant IMs (23.8%) compared to those without any special situation (3.6%). Anemia and multiple concomitant IMs were identified as independent predictors for a higher incidence of AEs (Table 1). The effectiveness of GMA was assessed in 92 patients with UC. The remission rate was 48.9%. No difference was observed in the remission rate between elderly patients without any special situation (52.2%) and those with at least one or more special situations (45.7%) (Figure 1B). Conclusions: A low incidence of AEs (3.6%) was found in elderly IBD patients receiving GMA without any special situation. Remission was achieved by GMA in 48.6% of the elderly UC patients. Care should be taken when using GMA in elderly IBD patients with anemia or on multiple concomitant IMs

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Tu1846 Higher Expression of MIP-1β and IL23 in Colonic Mucosa of Pretreatment may Predict Therapeutic Efficacy of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis in Elderly Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Chie Kurihara Toshihide Ohmori Shingo Kato Koji Yakabi Satoshi Mochida Soichiro Miura Gastroenterology 2017 152 (5) Suppl. S764

Background: The number of the elderly patients of ulcerative colitis (UC) is growing as the population ages. Because elderly patients with UC sometimes become refractory to treatment, it is important to select an appropriate induction therapy for elderly patients at the early phase of UC disease. To predict which therapy is effective before treatment will be useful for the decision of later therapeutic strategy. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) that was developed for selective depletion of activated granulocytes and monocytes/
macrophages from peripheral blood is non-pharmacological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. It is beneficial than the other therapy in the point that it has fewer side effects. GMA is effective and safe as induction therapy in UC, and commonly used in Asia and north Europe. GMA is one of hopeful candidate of elderly therapy. We investigated the relationship between therapeutic efficacy of GMA and age, and examined whether mRNA expressions of cytokines and chemokines in colonic mucosa showed presence of age-related change. Methods: Thirty-two active UC patients, mean age 36.7 years, range 14-70 years, were enrolled in this study. All patients received 10 or 11 times of GMA, and colonoscopies were applied before the first GMA and after the last GMA. Assessment of disease activity and colonic mucosal healing were determined based on Mayo score. In this study, elderly patients were defined as those >55 years of age. mRNA expressions of cytokines and chemokines were determined by quantitative RT-PCR using biopsy specimen of colonic mucosa. Results: There were no significant differences in sex, duration of disease, location of disease, CRP, WBC and Mayo score before the first GMA treatment between elderly group and non-elderly group. After the last GMA session, the ratios of mucosal healing in elderly group and non-elderly group were 2 of 6 (33.3%) and 16 of 26 (61.5%), respectively. In all patients, before treatment of GMA, mucosal healing group showed significantly higher mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as MIP-1β, TNFα, IL1β and IL8 in colonic mucosal tissue than that of non-mucosal healing group (P <0.05). In particular, in elderly group, the degree of mRNA expression of MIP-1β and IL23 in colonic mucosa before GMA treatment was higher in mucosal healing group than in non-mucosal healing group (P <0.05). High expressions of MIP-1β and IL23 showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 100% as a marker of mucosal healing after GMA in elderly group. Conclusion: Mucosal IL23 and MIP-1β mRNA expression before treatment in elderly were significantly higher in responder than non-responder to GMA treatment. We propose that measuring of expression of these molecules is useful to expect therapeutic efficacy of GMA in elderly patients with UC.

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A Case of Old Age-Onset Generalized Pustular Psoriasis with a Deficiency of IL-36RN (DITRA) Treated by Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis.

Chiharu Tominaga 1Masaaki Yamamoto 1Yasutomo Imai 1Kiyofumi Yamanishi 1 , Case Rep Dermatol. 2015 Feb 21;7(1):29-35.

 She is the oldest reported case of GPP with a deficiency of interleukin-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), although GPP in DITRA has been suggested to usually occur in younger cases with no pre-existing psoriasis vulgaris.

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