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Use of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in dermatology (Review)

Laura Gnesotto 1Guido Mioso 1Mauro Alaibac 1

Exp Ther Med 2022 Jun 24;24(2):536. doi: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463. eCollection 2022 Aug. DOI: 10.3892/etm.2022.11463

Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal treatment that selectively removes activated myeloid lineage leukocytes from peripheral blood. This technique consists of a column with cellulose acetate beads as absorptive leukocytapheresis carriers, and was initially used to treat ulcerative colitis. A literature search was conducted to extract recently published studies about the clinical efficacy of GMA in patients with different skin disorders, reporting information on demographics, clinical symptoms, treatment and clinical course. Dermatological diseases, in which GMA has been performed, include generalized pustular psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, Behcet’s disease, Sweet’s syndrome, adult-onset Still’s disease, impetigo herpetiformis, reactive arthritis, acne and hidradenitis suppurativa syndrome, cutaneous allergic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In most patients, GMA was started after the failure of conventional therapeutic options and it was helpful in the majority of cases. Based on the information summarized, GMA could be considered a valid non-pharmacological treatment option for patients with several dermatological conditions, which are difficult to treat with other pharmacological preparations.

 PASH syndrome; cutaneous allergic vasculitis; granulocyte and monocyte apheresis; neutrophilic dermatoses; reactive arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35837066/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9257973/

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Generalized Pustular Psoriasis in Pregnancy: Current and Future Treatments

Mariko Seishima 1 2Kento Fujii 3Yoko Mizutani 3 Am J Clin Dermatol 2022 Jun 15. doi: 10.1007/s40257-022-00698-9.

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare, severe neutrophilic skin disease characterized by sudden widespread eruption of sterile pustules with or without systemic symptoms. GPP may be life threatening in cases with severe complications such as cardiovascular failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and serious infections. Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a GPP that is induced and exacerbated by pregnancy and occurs most frequently during the last trimester. IH may result in poor or fatal neonatal outcomes, including placental insufficiency, fetal abnormalities, stillbirth, and early neonatal death. Most patients have prompt remission in the postpartum period; however, earlier appearance and more severe symptoms are observed during subsequent pregnancies. Appropriate treatment and close monitoring of the mother and fetus are vital for the management of patients with IH. Particular attention is required for the management of patients with IH to avoid an influence on the fetus. However, data regarding treatments for GPP in pregnant women are sparse. Over the last decade, many patients with IH have been treated with cyclosporine, corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-12/23 inhibitors, and granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA). GMA may be an important option for patients with IH as it is presently one of the safest available therapeutic options, but there have been no reports to fully confirm its safety in pregnant patients with GPP. Alternatively, based on recent advances in the understanding of the role of the IL-36 axis in the pathogenesis of GPP, biologic agents that target the IL-36 pathway may demonstrate promising efficacy in IH.

Generalized Pustular Psoriasis in Pregnancy: Current and Future Treatments – PubMed (nih.gov)

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Efficacy of cytapheresis for induction therapy and extra-intestinal skin manifestations of ulcerative colitis

Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Osamu Nomura,Kei Nomura,Mayuko Haraikawa,Keiichi Haga,Dai Ishikawa,Taro Osada,Ken Yamaji,Shigaku Ikeda,Akihito Nagahara

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Mar 5. doi: 10.1111/1744-9987.13823. Online ahead of print.

Introduction: In recent years, the prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases has been increasing in Japan due to the westernization of lifestyles. Many patients have been reported to have extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) at least once. Skin lesions occur with a high degree of frequency among EIMs, with erythema nodosum (EN) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) the main complications. Cytapheresis is again attracting attention as a treatment with few side effects. Methods: We investigated the therapeutic effect of cytapheresis on ulcerative colitis (UC) and cutaneous EIMs. Between 2008 and 2021, 240 patients with active UC had induction therapy by cytapheresis at our hospital. Results: Remission and response rates were 50.0% and 67.5%, respectively. Apheresis was performed on seven patients with PG and five patients with EN with a good response. Serious adverse events were not observed. Conclusion: This retrospective assessment of efficacy showed that EN and PG responded favorably to cytapheresis.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35247233/

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Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis for pyoderma gangrenosum

Yuko Higashi,Atsuko Ibusuki,Naoko Baba,Miho Hatanaka,Ko-Ichi Tada,Takuro Kanekura, therapeutic apheresis and dialysis  First published: 09 August 2021

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), a chronic aseptic inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin ulcers with elevated and undermined borders, is resistant to conventional therapies. PG is elicited by activated neutrophils and macrophages and is often associated with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, aortitis syndrome, and hematopoietic disorders. This single-center study assessed the efficacy and safety of selectively depleting myeloid-lineage leukocytes in patients with PG. Patients with PG, aged 20 or over, received 5 or 10 treatment sessions of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA), once or twice a week. Treatment efficacy was assessed based on the rate of skin ulcer reduction, the visual analog scale of pain, and the physician’s global assessment of the skin lesions. A complete response (CR) was obtained in eight patients, a nearly complete response (nCR) in three patients, and a partial response (PR) in two patients. In four of the other six, the disease remained stable (SD) and in two we observed disease progression (PD). No severe adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that GMA is a useful and safe treatment modality for PG.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1744-9987.13720

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Leukocyte adsorption apheresis for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum

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Pyoderma gangrenosum with primary sclerosing cholangitis-associated colitis successfully treated with concomitant granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis with corticosteroids

Munenori KawaiChiharu KawanamiAkihisa Fukuda & Hiroshi Seno

Clin J Gastroenterol. 2021 Oct;14(5):1561-1566. doi: 10.1007/s12328-021-01460-0. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

An 18-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever, diarrhea and painful skin ulcers in both pretibial areas starting 19 days earlier. The skin lesions appeared deep necrotic ulcers with violaceous undermined borders. She had been diagnosed as ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) 6 and 5 years before, respectively, and had stopped having regular check-up and refused medication for years. Her clinical history and skin lesions led us to suspect of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). The skin biopsy showed aseptic abscess formation with neutrophils infiltration in the dermis without bacteria. Thus, she was diagnosed with PG. 1 mg/kg/day of prednisolone was administered and ten sessions of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) were started. Magnetic resonance cholangiography showed multifocal bile duct strictures due to PSC. Total colonoscopy revealed ulcerative pancolitis with spared normal mucosa in the rectum. After the treatments, her symptoms and the skin lesion improved dramatically. She was discharged on the 45th day with 25 mg/day of prednisolone. In conclusion, this is the first reported case of PG with PSC-associated colitis that showed dramatic response to the concomitant GMA therapy with corticosteroids. Together with previous reports, concomitant GMA therapy with corticosteroids may be an effective treatment for PG.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34101129/

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Intensive granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for generalized pustular psoriasis

Yoko MizutaniKento FujiiMiho KawamuraMadoka InoueYuki H. MizutaniKanako MatsuyamaTomoaki DoiSoichiro NagayaMariko Seishima, https://doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15569

Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) is usually performed weekly (consisting of five sessions) for refractory skin diseases, such as generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP). The time to remission of inflammatory bowel diseases has been reported to be significantly shorter in intensive GMA (twice a week) than in regular GMA (once a week).

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1346-8138.15569

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Pyoderma gangrenosum in an ulcerative colitis patient during treatment with vedolizumab responded favorably to adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis

Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Keiichi Haga,Michio Saeki,Mayuko Haraikawa,Hitoshi Tsuchihashi,Koki Okahara,Osamu Nomura,Hirofumi Fukushima,Takashi Murakami Dai Ishikawa,Shigaku Ikeda,Akihito Nagahara

J Clin Apher.  2020 Sep;35(5):488-492. doi: 10.1002/jca.21821. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an extra-intestinal skin lesion in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as is erythema nodosum. Vedolizumab (VED) is a monoclonal antibody that targets α4β7 integrin and has an intestinal selective mechanism. Despite good therapeutic effects on colitis, the effect on extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) remains unclear. Here we report a case of ulcerative colitis complicated by PG during treatment with VED, which was successfully treated with prednisolone in combination with adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA). The patient was a 50-year-old woman with a past medical history of extensive ulcerative colitis managed by golimumab (GLM). She developed flare symptoms due to loss of response to GLM, and treatment was switched to VED. Her gastrointestinal symptoms were improved with VED treatment with less frequent bowel movements. However, infiltrative erythema with pain appeared on the right lower leg and right knee, and expanded and gradually ulcerated. Her skin lesions were treated with corticosteroid, but showed poor improvement. Therefore, granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) treatment was administered in combination with prednisolone. After 3 months, the ulcer gradually improved, and at the time of this writing, the eruptions were nearly replaced by epithelial tissue. This case study showed that patients with UC and EIMS may respond well to combination therapy of VED and GMA. GMA has a very favorable safety profile. On the other hand, the causal connection between VED and PG is still unclear. We believe that a combination therapy involving VED and GMA in IBD patients with EIMs warrants consideration.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32767842/

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Cytapheresis for pyoderma gangrenosum associated with inflammatory bowel disease: A review of current status

Kentaro TominagaKenya KamimuraHiroki SatoMasayoshi KoYuzo KawataTakeshi MizusawaJunji Yokoyama, and Shuji Terai, World J Clin Cases. 2020 Jun 6; 8(11): 2092–2101.

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis clinically characterized by the presence of painful skin ulcerations with erythematous. As it is frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis, gastroenterologists should be familiar with the disease including therapeutic options. Pyoderma gangrenosum is one of the neutrophilic dermatoses often complicated with ulcerative colitis. The corticosteroid and other immune modulator have been used for the treatment, however, as its disease mechanism has not been clarified, there is no additional option for those who showed poor response and refractory to the conventional therapies. Therefore, we have conducted a review focusing on the cytapheresis for PG in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. A literature search was conducted to extract studies published in the last 20 years, with information on demographics, clinical symptoms, treatment, and the clinical course from a total of 22 cases reported and our recent case. In most patients, cytapheresis was associated with improvement or resolution of PG after failure of conventional therapeutic options such as corticosteroids, antibiotics, immunosuppressive agents and immunoglobulin. Based on the recent reports, we have summarized the clinical course of 23 cases and efficacy of cytapheresis..Cytapheresis is helpful in the majority of patients with PG refractory to medical treatment associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and could be further studied in a multicenter, randomized trial.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281039/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281039/pdf/WJCC-8-2092.pdf

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Impetigo herpetiformis with a CARD14 Thr79Ile variant successfully treated with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis

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