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Granulocyte Apheresis: Can It Be Associated with Anti PD-1 Therapy for Melanoma?

Alvise Sernicola 1,Anna Colpo 2,Anca Irina Leahu 2 and Mauro Alaibac 1Medicina 202258(10), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58101398

In the field of advanced melanoma, there is an urgent need to investigate novel approaches targeting specific components of the cancer–immunity cycle beyond immune checkpoint inhibitors. The authors reviewed the basic understanding of the role of neutrophils in cancer biology, and the latest clinical evidence supporting the correlation between cancer-associated neutrophils and the prognosis and response to the immunotherapy of advanced melanoma. Finally, they propose that granulocyte and monocyte apheresis, an emerging non-pharmacological treatment in current dermatology, could become an investigative treatment targeting melanoma-associated neutrophils which could be potentially used in combination with the usual immune checkpoint inhibitors.

https://www.mdpi.com/1648-9144/58/10/1398

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A case of severe generalized pustular psoriasis successfully treated with IL-17A monoclonal antibody and granulocyte removal therapy

Keiki ShimadaDaisuke KatagiriAika KatoNaoto NunoseMotohiko SatoYuri KatayamaKanako TerakawaTakahito NiikuraEmi SakamotoYuki YoshizakiMinami SuzukiTakashi FukayaTakeshi Tamaki & Hideki Takano Ren Replace Ther 8, 50 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41100-022-00439-y

Background Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) usually presents with fever, generalized flushing, and multiple sterile pustules on the skin, which histopathologically form subcorneal pustules characterized by Kogoj spongiform pustules. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) was approved in Japan in 2012. The use of biologics for psoriasis treatment is increasing. Several case reports have evaluated the combination of GMA and cyclosporine (CyA) for GPP. However, very few English reports on combining biologics and GMA in treating GPP exist. Case presentation A 79-year-old man with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and atrial fibrillation was admitted. He had been consulting a dermatologist for psoriasis vulgaris (PV) since the age of 44. The patient was diagnosed with severe GPP and treated with 300 mg secukinumab (SEC) on day 3. SEC is a fully human monoclonal IgG1 antibody that targets IL-17A. Five doses were administered. In addition, GMA was administered once a week, three times from day 4. After the first administration of GMA, the inflammatory response and skin condition improved markedly. The patient was discharged from the hospital on day 34. Conclusions The present study is the first English-written report on the combined administration of SEC and GMA both instituted since admission for severe GPP, with immediate patient response to treatment. Notably, IL-17A plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of GPP. GMA can eliminate activated leukocytes, and the early introduction of combined IL-17 monoclonal antibody and GMA may allow disease suppression in patients with severe GPP, thus avoiding progression to multiorgan failure. Further studies may verify the effects of IL-17 monoclonal antibodies and GMA on severe GPP.

https://rrtjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41100-022-00439-y#citeas

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Targeting neutrophils in inflammatory bowel disease: revisiting the role of adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis

Giorgos Bamias 1Evanthia Zampeli 2Eugeni Domènech 3 Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol  2022 Jul 19;1-15. doi: 10.1080/17474124.2022.2100759.

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). While any part of the digestive tract can be affected in CD, mucosal inflammation in UC is limited to the colon. Differences and similarities between the two conditions are reflected by their pathophysiology. Areas covered: An overview of immunological aspects, pharmacological management, and biomarkers of IBD is provided. The role of adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) is reviewed including its primary and secondary effects on the immune system, as well as clinical studies in IBD (mainly UC), and potential biomarkers for adsorptive GMA. Expert opinion: In UC, adsorptive GMA with Adacolumn (Adacolumn®, JIMRO Co., Ltd. Takasaki, Gunma, Japan) selectively depletes elevated myeloid lineage leukocytes and has a range of beneficial secondary immune effects. Adsorptive GMA is a safe and effective non-pharmacological treatment option for UC. Pilot studies have reported promising results for adsorptive GMA in combination with biological agents, although larger studies are required. Fecal calprotectin concentrations, neutrophil counts in histological samples and/or the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood may prove to be useful biomarkers for predicting GMA effectiveness in the future.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35833363/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/epub/10.1080/17474124.2022.2100759?needAccess=true

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Efficacy of cytapheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis showing insufficient or lost response to biologic therapy

Iizuka M, Etou T, Sagara S.  World J Gastroenterol 2022; 28(34): 4959-4972 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i34.4959

For the optimal management of refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), secondary loss of response (LOR) and primary non-response to biologics is a critical issue. This article aimed to summarize the current literature on the use of cytapheresis (CAP) in patients with UC showing a poor response or LOR to biologics and discuss its advantages and limitations. Further, we summarized the efficacy of CAP in patients with UC showing insufficient response to thiopurines or immunomodulators (IM). Eight studies evaluated the efficacy of CAP in patients with UC with inadequate responses to thiopurines or IM. There were no significant differences in the rate of remission and steroid-free remission between patients exposed or not exposed to thiopurines or IM. Three studies evaluated the efficacy of CAP in patients with UC showing an insufficient response to biologic therapies. Mean remission rates of biologics exposed or unexposed patients were 29.4 % and 44.2%, respectively. Fourteen studies evaluated the efficacy of CAP in combination with biologics in patients with inflammatory bowel disease showing a poor response or LOR to biologics. The rates of remission/response and steroid-free remission in patients with UC ranged 32%-69% (mean: 48.0%, median: 42.9%) and 9%-75% (mean: 40.7%, median: 38%), respectively. CAP had the same effectiveness for remission induction with or without prior failure on thiopurines or IM but showed little benefit in patients with UC refractory to biologics. Although heterogeneity existed in the efficacy of the combination therapy with CAP and biologics, these combination therapies induced clinical remission/response and steroid-free remission in more than 40% of patients with UC refractory to biologics on average. Given the excellent safety profile of CAP, this combination therapy can be an alternative therapeutic strategy for UC refractory to biologics. Extensive prospective studies are needed to understand the efficacy of combination therapy with CAP and biologics.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36160647/

https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v28/i34/4959.htm

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Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comprehensive Review

Zhaobei Cai 1 2Shu Wang 3Jiannan Li 1 Front Med (Lausanne)  2021 Dec 20;8:765474. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.765474. eCollection 2021.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as a global disease, has attracted much research interest. Constant research has led to a better understanding of the disease condition and further promoted its management. We here reviewed the conventional and the novel drugs and therapies, as well as the potential ones, which have shown promise in preclinical studies and are likely to be effective future therapies. The conventional treatments aim at controlling symptoms through pharmacotherapy, including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, with other general measures and/or surgical resection if necessary. However, a considerable fraction of patients do not respond to available treatments or lose response, which calls for new therapeutic strategies. Diverse therapeutic options are emerging, involving small molecules, apheresis therapy, improved intestinal microecology, cell therapy, and exosome therapy. In addition, patient education partly upgrades the efficacy of IBD treatment. Recent advances in the management of IBD have led to a paradigm shift in the treatment goals, from targeting symptom-free daily life to shooting for mucosal healing. In this review, the latest progress in IBD treatment is summarized to understand the advantages, pitfalls, and research prospects of different drugs and therapies and to provide a basis for the clinical decision and further research of IBD.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34988090/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8720971/

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The combined efficacy of adalimumab with GMA method on the treatment of ulcerative colitis and repair of intestinal mucosal lesion

Ailing Song, Hai Jiang, Liang Guo, Shanshan Wu, Am J Transl Res 2021;13(5):5156-5164

Objectives: The study discussed and analyzed the combined efficacy of adalimumab with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) method on patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and the repair of intestinal mucosal lesion. Methods: 60 UC patients in moderate-to-severe active phase that hospitalized from January 2017 to March 2020 were chosen and randomly classified into observation group (n=30) and control group (n=30). The control-group patients received GMA treatment, and the observation-group patients received combination therapy of GMA and adalimumab. The therapeutic efficacy, laboratory indicators, changes of serum inflammatory factors, and intestinal mucosal barrier impairment in two sets of participants were compared. Results: The comprehensive effective rate of clinical treatment was remarkably higher in observation group than that in control group (P<0.05). CRP and ESR of the two groups in post- treatment were notably lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), while Hb and ALB in post-treatment increased significantly than in pre-intervention (P<0.05); CRP in observation group after treatment was remarkably lower than that in control group (P<0.05), while no significant difference was noticed in ESR, ALB and Hb between the two groups (P>0.05). The serum inflammatory factors in observation group in post-treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The scores of PCT, DAO and intestinal mucosa in two sets of participants in post-treatment were dramatically lower than those in pre-treatment (P<0.05), and the scores in observation group after treatment were notably lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The combined efficacy of adalimumab with GMA on UC patients can improve the clinical curative efficacy, effectively reduce the inflammatory factors, which is beneficial to the repair of intestinal mucosal barrier function, and worthy of clinical application.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34150104/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205815/pdf/ajtr0013-5156.pdf

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Use of granulocyte/monocytapheresis in ulcerative colitis: A practical review from a European perspective

Eugeni DomènechJoan-Ramon GrífolsAyesha Akbar, and Axel U Dignass World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Mar 14; 27(10): 908–918.

GMA is the only available therapy for UC directly targeting neutrophils. Two controlled, multicentre, European studies and a number of recent cases series found a potential therapeutic benefit of GMA in different clinical scenarios of UC with a still unmet need for optimal treatment. Moreover, GMA has an excellent safety profile and is perceived as a convenient procedure by patients, making this non-pharmacological therapy a suitable alternative or add-on therapy in UC, particularly for frail or comorbid patients.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968132/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968132/pdf/WJG-27-908.pdf

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Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis as an adjunctive therapy to induce and maintain clinical remission in ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta analysis

Szabolcs KissDávid NémethPéter Hegyi Mária Földi Zsolt SzakácsBálint Erőss Benedek Tinusz Péter Jenő HegyiPatrícia Sarlós Hussain Alizadeh, BMJ Open 2021 May 19;11(5):e042374.

The results support the hypothesis that patients with active UC have a better chance of clinical remission if GMA is administered as an adjunctive therapy. As regards the frequency of AEs, we found no statistically significant difference between the two groups. With regard to remission maintenance, GMA was identified as an effective alternative therapeutic option

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34011580/

e042374.full.pdf (bmj.com)

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S-05-06 Efficacy of Adsorptive Granulocyte/Monocyte Apheresis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Experiencing Loss of Response to Infliximab (poster)

ISFA-E-ISFA 2021

To our knowledge this is the first report of adding GMA to restore the efficacy of infliximab in patients with LoR.  However, the efficacy outcomes following addition of a non-drug GMA to infliximab is potentially very interesting in therapeutic settings and should inspire further studies

https://www.eventclass.org/contxt_eisfa2021/online-program/session?s=S-05

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Refractory Ulcerative Colitis Improved by Scheduled Combination Therapy of Vedolizumab and Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis

Masanao Nakamura 1Takeshi Yamamura 1Keiko Maeda 2Tsunaki Sawada 2Yasuyuki Mizutani 1Eri Ishikawa 1Ayako Ohashi 1Go Kajikawa 1Kazuhiro Furukawa 1Eizaburo Ohno 1Takashi Honda 1Hiroki Kawashima 1Masatoshi Ishigami 1Mitsuhiro Fujishiro 1

Intern Med. 2020 Dec 1;59(23):3009-3014. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.5302-20. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) is occasionally introduced as an alternative combination therapy after loss of response to biologics in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. However, there have been no reports of the concomitant use of vedolizumab (VDZ) and GMA for the initial induction of UC. A 20-year-old man with refractory UC was admitted for recrudescence. VDZ monotherapy had previously been introduced but was ineffective. Therefore, he received scheduled combination of VDZ and GMA and achieved clinical remission. The combination of two different approaches to inhibit the migration of leukocytes into the inflamed tissue led to satisfactory clinical outcomes.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32727993/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759717/

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