Scientific corner

Efficacy of cytapheresis for induction therapy and extra-intestinal skin manifestations of ulcerative colitis

Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Osamu Nomura,Kei Nomura,Mayuko Haraikawa,Keiichi Haga,Dai Ishikawa,Taro Osada,Ken Yamaji,Shigaku Ikeda,Akihito Nagahara

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Mar 5. doi: 10.1111/1744-9987.13823. Online ahead of print.

Introduction: In recent years, the prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases has been increasing in Japan due to the westernization of lifestyles. Many patients have been reported to have extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) at least once. Skin lesions occur with a high degree of frequency among EIMs, with erythema nodosum (EN) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) the main complications. Cytapheresis is again attracting attention as a treatment with few side effects. Methods: We investigated the therapeutic effect of cytapheresis on ulcerative colitis (UC) and cutaneous EIMs. Between 2008 and 2021, 240 patients with active UC had induction therapy by cytapheresis at our hospital. Results: Remission and response rates were 50.0% and 67.5%, respectively. Apheresis was performed on seven patients with PG and five patients with EN with a good response. Serious adverse events were not observed. Conclusion: This retrospective assessment of efficacy showed that EN and PG responded favorably to cytapheresis.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35247233/

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Current pharmacologic treatment paradigms for inflammatory bowel disease and the potential role of granulocyte/monocyte apheresis

David Schwartz 1John R Ferguson, Curr Med Res Opin . 2007 Nov;23(11):2715-28.

Background: A broad range of pharmacologic therapies are available to treat active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including 5-aminosalicylate preparations, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants (e.g., azathio prine/6-mercaptopurine [AZA/6-MP] or methotrexate). Although these therapies are effective, up to 60% of patients are refractory or intolerant. Biologic therapies, such as the anti-TNF agent infliximab, offer promise but are not without controversy; despite many positive reports, steroid-refractory patients are less likely than other individuals to respond to infliximab. Effective, long-term therapies that do not add to the adverse-effects burden in patients with IBD are needed. Of these, granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMA) is one promising approach.

Scope: PubMed and relevant congresses databases were searched using the terms ‘granulocyte/monocyte apheresis,’ ‘GMA,’ ‘leukocytapheresis,’ ‘Adacolumn,’ and ‘Cellsorba.’ These studies were further selected to include only those focusing on IBD. A time frame of 2000-2006 was used.

Findings: Data from open-label trials show that patients with moderate-to-severe IBD refractory to conventional pharmacologic treatment achieved clinical response and/or remission after treatment with GMA. Furthermore, recent small open-label trials of GMA show increased rates of induction and maintenance of response/remission in steroid-naïve IBD patients.

Conclusions: The remission rates seen in these open-label clinical trials of GMA are consistent with those of currently available pharmacologic therapies for IBD. However, the majority of these trials enrolled only small numbers of patients, were largely open-label, and were of limited duration. These data must be confirmed in well-controlled, large-scale clinical trials

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17894921/

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Efficacy of Granulocyte Apheresis in Pediatric Patients With Ulcerative Colitis: A Pilot Study

Ikeda, Hitoshi; Ishimaru, Yuki; Takayasu, Hajime; Fujino, Junko; Kisaki, Yoshiyuki; Otani, Yushi; Yamagishi, Junko; Tahara, Kazunori. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006; 43:592-6. doi: 10.1097/01.mpg.0000237928.07729.79

Objectives: Granulocyte apheresis (GCAP), involving the removal of granulocytes from the blood, may improve clinical symptoms and facilitate a reduction in the dose of steroids in adult patients with ulcerative colitis. As a preliminary trial, GCAP was used to taper the dose of steroids in 4 pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis. Methods: Three males and 1 female ranging from 11 to 17 years old were treated with GCAP once per week for 5 consecutive weeks/course. The ages of patients at clinical onset ranged from 8 to 12 years and the length of time from the clinical onset to GCAP treatment ranged from 28 to 58 months (median, 38.5 months). Results: In 2 patients, symptoms and signs indicating disease activity improved after 2 courses of GCAP. Laboratory data and endoscopic findings also improved after treatment and the clinical efficacy was judged to be excellent in these patients. In 1 patient, GCAP improved laboratory and endoscopic hallmarks, but bloody stools persisted. Finally, the treatment was ineffective in the fourth patient who eventually underwent surgery. Conclusions: GCAP is effective in improving clinical symptoms and may play an important role in converting steroid therapy to other treatments in children with steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis.

https://journals.lww.com/jpgn/FullText/2006/11000/Efficacy_of_Granulocyte_Apheresis_in_Pediatric.8.aspx

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Leukocytapheresis in Patients with Moderate-Severe Steroid-Dependant Ulcerative Colitis: Clinical Response without Endoscopic Response

Irene Modesto, Daniela Scimeca, Ambrogio Orlando, Mario Cottone, Inflamm Bowel Dis 12 (10), October 2006

We report the results of an open prospective study of LCAP in moderate to severe steroid-dependent UC. LCAP is an effective procedure in obtaining discontinuation of steroids in 36% of patients with UC for at least 3 months. Overall 4 of 11(36%) patients could discontinue steroids within 3 months. No relevant side effects were observed. The procedure was well tolerated. In our series, there was no endoscopic response. Most of the patients obtained a clinical temporary response, but many relapsed

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17012976/

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Adsorptive Monocyte-granulocytapheresis (M-GCAP) for refractory Crohn’s disease

Takeshi Kusaka 1Ken FukunagaKunio OhnishiTadashi KosakaToshihiko TomitaYoko YokoyamaKoji SawadaYoshihiro FukudaHiroto MiwaTakayuki Matsumoto

J Clin Apher. 2004;19(4):168-73. doi: 10.1002/jca.20023.

Six patients with active Crohn’s disease (CD) unresponsive to conventional medications (CM) were treated with Monocyte-granulocytapheresis (M-GCAP). CD patients who scored 200-400 points in Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) in spite of receiving CM, including enteral nutrition, for at least 2 weeks were enrolled in our double series trial. Each series had 5 weekly M-GCAP and 2 follow-up weeks, and each M-GCAP treated 1,800 ml of patient’s peripheral blood. After the 1st series, patients who decreased more than 50 points on the CDAI were deemed responders and enrolled in the second series. Patients with a CDAI score less than 150 points were considered in remission. The patients’ quality of life was evaluated using an index (IBDQ) before and after the 1st series. The CDAI was significantly decreased comparing before and after the 1st series (258.2 +/- 36.2 vs. 166.5 +/- 16.6; P < 0.02). 50% of patients (3/6) responded to the therapy, and one case (16.7%) could be induced to remission. Significant removal was revealed only for white blood cells (25.6 +/- 16.9%; P < 0.05), especially granulocytes (29.5 +/- 22.5%; P < 0.05). A statistically significant improvement of IBDQ was revealed in the responders’ group (162.3 +/- 17.2 vs. 189.3 +/- 11.5; P < 0.03). M-GCAP could be an effective adjunctive therapy for active CD patients unresponsive to CM allowing them to maintain a high QOL. However, it might be difficult to improve patients who could not be induced to remission after the 1st series by applying another series.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15597346/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jca.20023

Scientific corner

Adsorptive Monocyte-granulocytapheresis (M-GCAP) for refractory Crohn’s disease

Takeshi Kusaka 1Ken FukunagaKunio OhnishiTadashi KosakaToshihiko TomitaYoko YokoyamaKoji SawadaYoshihiro FukudaHiroto MiwaTakayuki Matsumoto J Clin Apher. 2004;19(4):168-73. doi: 10.1002/jca.20023.

Six patients with active Crohn’s disease (CD) unresponsive to conventional medications (CM) were treated with Monocyte-granulocytapheresis (M-GCAP). CD patients who scored 200-400 points in Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) in spite of receiving CM, including enteral nutrition, for at least 2 weeks were enrolled in our double series trial. Each series had 5 weekly M-GCAP and 2 follow-up weeks, and each M-GCAP treated 1,800 ml of patient’s peripheral blood. After the 1st series, patients who decreased more than 50 points on the CDAI were deemed responders and enrolled in the second series. Patients with a CDAI score less than 150 points were considered in remission. The patients’ quality of life was evaluated using an index (IBDQ) before and after the 1st series. The CDAI was significantly decreased comparing before and after the 1st series (258.2 +/- 36.2 vs. 166.5 +/- 16.6; P < 0.02). 50% of patients (3/6) responded to the therapy, and one case (16.7%) could be induced to remission. Significant removal was revealed only for white blood cells (25.6 +/- 16.9%; P < 0.05), especially granulocytes (29.5 +/- 22.5%; P < 0.05). A statistically significant improvement of IBDQ was revealed in the responders’ group (162.3 +/- 17.2 vs. 189.3 +/- 11.5; P < 0.03). M-GCAP could be an effective adjunctive therapy for active CD patients unresponsive to CM allowing them to maintain a high QOL. However, it might be difficult to improve patients who could not be induced to remission after the 1st series by applying another series.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15597346/

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