LS2-02 Tips for ensuring vascular access and maintaining extracorporeal circulation in pediatric blood purification therapy
poster at ISFA 2019 pag 164-165
Ensuring reliable vascular access (VA) and maintaining stable extracorporeal circulation are the most basic aspects of blood purification therapy (BPT). In children and neonates, specific tips could be helpful for BPT.
VA guidelines were published in 2011 and management methods have been unified. To ensure VA, it is necessary to determine a suitable placement site and catheter size (diameter and length), adjust the catheter tip position, and manage the catheters appropriately. It is common to use dialysis catheters for BPT, placing them in the central and peripheral veins. In neonates, the umbilical vein could also be one of the options, and central venous catheters and peripheral vein catheters could be used for BPT. In order to maintain stable extracorporeal circulation, it is necessary to maintain sufficient intravascular volume and blood pressure, set appropriate blood flow rates, and adjust the type and amount of anticoagulant. In children who cannot cooperate,
sedation management and catheter fixation should be performed to stabilize extracorporeal circulation.
There are also tips specialized for each disease state. In neonates, there is a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage and nafamostat mesylate is often used as an anticoagulant. In addition, it is necessary to increase the dose of anticoagulant or administer it from two places in the circuits. In patients with severe inflammatory bowel diseases, intestinal bleeding continues despite increased clotting function and hypovolemia is common. Heparin and nafamostat mesylate are chosen as anticoagulants. During BPT, monitoring activated clotting time, administering minimal anticoagulants, and administering transfusion and fluid load are useful methods to maintain stable extracorporeal circulation. BPT might be a powerful therapeutic tool for children as well as adults, ensuring reliable VA and maintaining stable extracorporeal circulation.
Granulocyte adsorptive apheresis for pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis
Takeshi Tomomasa 1, Akio Kobayashi, Hiroaki Kaneko, Sasaki Mika, Shun-Ichi Maisawa, Yoshie Chino, Hohkibara Syou, Atsushi Yoden, Jyunko Fujino, Makoto Tanikawa, Takafumi Yamashita, Shigeru Kimura, Maiko Kanoh, Koji Sawada, Akihiro Morikawa
Granulocytapheresis (GCAP) has produced efficacy in adult patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) by adsorbing activated granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. We retrospectively investigated efficacy and safety of GCAP in pediatric patients with active UC. Twelve steroid-refractory children (12.2 +/- 3.1 years old) were treated with GCAP, one session/week for 5-10 consecutive weeks. In 8 patients, clinical symptoms improved after two GCAP sessions. Normal body temperature, stool frequency, and disappearance of blood in stool were seen after 24.3 +/- 11.5 days. The endoscopic grade improved from 2.6 +/- 0.3 to 0.4 +/- 0.2. One patient who initially responded, developed bloody diarrhea later and 2 cases remained unchanged. The dose of steroid was tapered during GCAP therapy by 50%. No serious adverse effects were noted. Four of 8 cases relapsed 3.5 +/- 2.2 months after the last GCAP while on maintenance therapy, the other 4 were in remission up to 22.8 +/- 18.1 months. In conclusion, GCAP appears to be effective and well tolerated in children with steroid-refractory UC.
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