Scientific corner

Generalized Pustular Psoriasis in Pregnancy: Current and Future Treatments

Mariko Seishima 1 2Kento Fujii 3Yoko Mizutani 3 Am J Clin Dermatol 2022 Jun 15. doi: 10.1007/s40257-022-00698-9.

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare, severe neutrophilic skin disease characterized by sudden widespread eruption of sterile pustules with or without systemic symptoms. GPP may be life threatening in cases with severe complications such as cardiovascular failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and serious infections. Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a GPP that is induced and exacerbated by pregnancy and occurs most frequently during the last trimester. IH may result in poor or fatal neonatal outcomes, including placental insufficiency, fetal abnormalities, stillbirth, and early neonatal death. Most patients have prompt remission in the postpartum period; however, earlier appearance and more severe symptoms are observed during subsequent pregnancies. Appropriate treatment and close monitoring of the mother and fetus are vital for the management of patients with IH. Particular attention is required for the management of patients with IH to avoid an influence on the fetus. However, data regarding treatments for GPP in pregnant women are sparse. Over the last decade, many patients with IH have been treated with cyclosporine, corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-12/23 inhibitors, and granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA). GMA may be an important option for patients with IH as it is presently one of the safest available therapeutic options, but there have been no reports to fully confirm its safety in pregnant patients with GPP. Alternatively, based on recent advances in the understanding of the role of the IL-36 axis in the pathogenesis of GPP, biologic agents that target the IL-36 pathway may demonstrate promising efficacy in IH.

Generalized Pustular Psoriasis in Pregnancy: Current and Future Treatments – PubMed (nih.gov)

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Novel Prognostic Biomarkers of Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Treated With Anti-TNF: Neutrophil-toLymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio

Lorenzo Bertani 1Federico Rossari 2Brigida Barberio 3Maria Giulia Demarzo 4Gherardo Tapete 1Eleonora Albano 1Giovanni Baiano Svizzero 1Linda Ceccarelli 5Maria Gloria Mumolo 5Chiara Brombin 6Nicola de Bortoli 1Massimo Bellini 1Santino Marchi 1Giorgia Bodini 4Edoardo Savarino 3Francesco Costa 5

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2020 Sep 18;26(10):1579-1587. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izaa062.

Background: Anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs (anti-TNFs) are widely used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, many patients experience loss of response during the first year of therapy. An early predictor of clinical remission and mucosal healing is needed. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are markers of subclinical inflammation poorly evaluated in UC patients treated with anti-TNFs. The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate whether NLR and PLR could be used as prognostic markers of anti-TNF treatment response. Methods: Patients with UC who started anti-TNF treatment in monotherapy were evaluated. Patients with concomitant corticosteroid treatment ≥20 mg were excluded. We calculated NLR, PLR, and fecal calprotectin before treatment and after induction. The values of NLR and PLR were correlated with clinical remission and mucosal healing at the end of follow-up (54 weeks) using the Mann-Whitney U test and then multivariate analysis was conducted. Results: Eighty-eight patients were included. Patients who reached mucosal healing after 54 weeks of therapy displayed lower levels of both baseline NLR and PLR (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.04, respectively); similar results were obtained at week 8 (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Patients who presented with active ulcers at baseline endoscopic evaluation had higher baseline NLR and PLR values compared with those without detected ulcers (P = 0.002 and P = 0.0007, respectively). Conclusions: Both NLR and PLR showed a promising role as early predictors of therapeutic response to anti-TNF therapy in UC patients. If confirmed in larger studies, classification and regression trees proposed in this article could be useful to guide clinical decisions regarding anti-TNF treatment.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32232392/

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Su1934-Safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease undergoing concomitant treatment with immunosuppressant medications: a multicenter cohort study

Maki Miyakawa, Hiroki Tanaka, Tomoyoshi Shibuya,Taro Osada, Eiji Hosoi Gastroenterol. 2019 156 (6) Suppl.S-666–S-667

Background: Few studies have assessed the safety of granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) undergoing concomitant treatment with multiple immunosuppressant medications. To address this research gap, we investigated adverse effects associated with GMA in patients with IBD treated with multiple immunosuppressants  who  participated  in  the  “Post-marketing  surveillance  study  on  the safety and response of GMA treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis with at least one special situation who received Adacolumn® (PARTICULAR).” Methods: The PARTICULAR study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) who received GMA between November 2013 and March 2017. Patients meeting at least one of the following special situation were enrolled: elderly (<=65 years) or pediatric/adolescent (>=18 years) patients, patients with anemia, or patients undergoing concomitant treatment with multiple immunosuppressants. GMA was performed using Adacolumn® (JIMRO, Takasaki, Japan). Each patient received up to 11 GMA sessions, and all adverse events (AEs) during the study period were recorded. The incidence of AEs was investigated relative to the number and type of immunosuppressants using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 437 patients (368 UC, 69 CD) from 93 institutions were included. Of these, 140, 169, 101, and 27 patients received none, 1, 2, and >=3 immunosuppressants, respectively. In total, 125 patients received multiple immunosuppressants. Concomitant prednisolone, immunomodulators, anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, and calcineurin inhibitors were administered in 189, 151, 89, and 24 patients, respectively. The incidence of AEs was 11% in all 437 patients and 8%, 12%, 12%, and 26% in patients receiving none, 1, 2, and >=3 immunosuppressants, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, anemia and concomitant immunosuppressants were independently associated with the incidence of AEs. Particularly, a higher number of concomitant immunosuppressants showed an increasing trend with odds ratios related to AEs. In contrast, concomitant corticosteroids were associated with a reduced risk of AEs. Nausea/vomiting and headache were the most common AEs in patients on multiple immunosuppressant medications (5.6% and 3.2%, respectively). Conclusions: Concomitant treatment with immunosuppressants was independently associated with the incidence of AEs such as nausea/vomiting and headache in patients with IBD receiving GMA. As the number of concomitant immunosuppressants increased, the incidence of AEs also increased. However, our data also suggest that GMA is safe in patients with IBD receiving prednisolone.

https://www.gastrojournal.org/action/doSearch?text1=granulocyte+and+monocyte+apheresis+&field1=AllField&AfterYear=2018&BeforeYear=2021&pageSize=50&startPage=&SeriesKey=ygast

Scientific corner

Changes in Treatment with Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorptive Apheresis from the Past to Future in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Shingo KatoAkira IshibashiKaori SugiuraKazuhito KaniTomonari OgawaHajime HasegawaKoji Yakabi, Contrib Nephrol 2018;196:200-208.

GMA decreases inflammatory cytokines and upregulates regulatory T cells. Intensive GMA is significantly more effective than weekly GMA in patients with IBD. The frequency of GMA sessions per week positively correlates with treatment effects. GMA can be safely used in pregnant women and children because of its low adverse event rates. Maintenance therapy and rescue therapy for loss of response of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibodies are effective. Optimal patients who responded to combination therapy with infliximab and GMA showed aggravation characteristics against infliximab treatment at week 4. Key Message: Prospective randomized blinded studies using a sham column should be performed for the loss of response against anti-TNF-α antibodies.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30041228/

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