Selective granulocyte and monocyte apheresis in inflammatory bowel disease: Its past, present and future
The etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are not fully understood so far. Therefore, IBD still remains incurable despite the fact that significant progress has been achieved in recent years in its treatment with innovative medicine. About 20 years ago, selective granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) was invented in Japan and later approved by the Japanese health authority for IBD treatment. From then on this technique was extensively used for IBD patients in Japan and later in Europe. Clinical trials from Japan and European countries have verified the effectiveness and safety of GMA therapy in patients with IBD. In 2013, GMA therapy was approved by China State Food and Drug Administration for therapeutic use for the Chinese IBD patients. However, GMA therapy has not been extensively used in China, although a few clinical studies also showed that it was effective in clinical and endoscopic induction of remission in Chinese IBD patients with a high safety profile. This article reviews past history, present clinical application as well as the future prospective of GMA therapy for patients with IBD.
Adacolumn for Hemoperfusion to Deplete Inflammatory Leucocytes as an Alternative or Complementary to Drug Therapy in Patients with Immune Disorders: Basic Mechanisms and Concepts for Therapeutic Efficacy
This study indicated that LCAP therapy can significantly decrease RA disease activity and is a safe and effective alternative therapy. LCAP therapy significantly reduced serum CXCL16 and serotonin levels, offering a putative mechanism by which it improves the articular symptoms of RA.
Selective granulocyte and monocyte apheresis as a non-pharmacological option for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the two most prevalent inflammatory bowel diseases. In both cases, the medically refractory and steroid-dependent type presents a therapeutic challenge. To help resolve this problem, a mainly Japanese team developed a new therapeutic option. There are two systems, both of which are able to selectively remove the main mediators of the disease, namely the activated pro-inflammatory cytokine-producing granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, from the patient’s blood circulation (GMA = granulocyte monocyte apheresis). One of the two systems is the Adacolumn( (®) ) (Immunoresearch Laboratories, Takasaki, Japan) consisting of the ADA-monitor and a single-use column, which contains approximately 35,000 cellulose acetate beads. The exact mode of action is not yet sufficiently understood, but however, a modulation of the immune system takes place. As a result, less pro-inflammatory cytokines are released. Furthermore, the production of anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is increased, and the apoptosis of granulocytes boosted. The decreased LECAM-1-expression on leukocytes impedes the leukotaxis to the inflamed tissue, and CD10-negative immature granulocytes appear in the peripheral blood. Another effect to be mentioned is the removal of the peripheral dendritic cells and the leachate of regulatory T cells (T-regs). The second system is the Cellsorba( (®) ) FX Filter (Asahi Medical, Tokyo, Japan). The range of efficiency, the indication, and the procedure are very similar to the Adacolumn. Solely the additional removal of lymphocytes can possibly limit the implementation since lymphopenia can increase the risk of autoimmune disease. Both systems provide a low-risk therapy with few adverse reactions. ASFA recommendations for GMA in inflammatory bowel disease are 2B due to the fact that not enough randomized double-blind studies are available to proof the efficacy of this treatment.
Adacolumn, an adsorptive carrier based granulocyte and monocyte apheresis device for the treatment of inflammatory and refractory diseases associated with leukocytes
Apheresis has been recognized both economically and therapeutically as a novel approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and certain others, which respond poorly to drug therapy. This report is about Adacolumn, an adsorptive carrier based granulocyte and monocyte apheresis device with a volume of 335 mL, filled with about 220 g of cellulose acetate beads of 2 mm diameter as the column adsorptive carriers. Pre- and post-column leukocyte counts have shown that the carriers adsorb about 65% of granulocytes, 55% of monocytes and 2% of lymphocytes from the blood in the column. Additionally, after apheresis, there is a marked decrease in inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8) produced by blood leukocytes, together with down-modulation of L-selectin and the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Adacolumn has been used to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and HIV infection. Typical apheresis sessions have been 4-10, at a frequency of one or two sessions per week. Treatment of patients with Adacolumn has been associated with very promising efficacy and safety data. Accordingly, in Japan, Adacolumn has been approved by the Ministry of Health for the treatment of ulcerative colitia. Furthermore, Adacolumn met the required quality and safety standards for medical devices and received an EC certification (CE-mark) from TUV in 1999. However, although Adacolumn carriers are very efficient in depleting excess and activated granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, the clinical efficacy associated with Adacolumn apheresis cannot be fully explained on the basis of reducing granulocytes and monocytes per se. Hence, a long lasting effect on inflammatory cytokine generation, chemokine activities or immunomodulation is likely, but the precise mechanisms involved are not fully understood yet.
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